Fall is the time to check soil nutrient levels in preparation for next year’s soybean crop. The plants spread and fill in gaps and perfect stands are not required for maximum yields. Row spacing. Corn, Soybean Planting Considerations for this Week’s Cold Snap, University of Nebraska Extension CropWatch. Fast growing; Works well with other seeds Product Information. In the northern latitudes, planting from early May to late June will suffice. and P.R. When planting varieties having field tolerance, but not race resistance to Phytophthora, seed treatments must be used to provide adequate protection against this pathogen. Tenorio, Fatima Amor, Patricio Grassini, Jenny Rees, Keith Glewen, Nathan Mueller, Laura Thompson, and Jim Specht. It would be helpful to have included 6, 10, and 12 hour increments to better understand the rate changes of water uptake. They are generally grown in a crop rotation with corn, creating good risk management for both crops by breaking disease, insect, and weed cycles, as well as managing farm workflow. Seeding rates may need to be increased to establish a uniform final stand if standard germination percentages are reduced. Licht says corn timing is more important than beans, as beans are more resilient. Seeding rates may need to be increased to establish a uniform final stand if standard germination percentages are reduced. There are better ways to do it. There are weather risks on both ends.”. In Ohio, most soybeans are planted in row widths ≤ 15 inches. This moisture increase may occur naturally after seed in cold storage is transported and exposed to higher humidity and temperatures in the outside air and in seed storage buildings. When your seeds sprout, thin them by cutting the weak seedlings to the ground and spacing the remaining plants 4-6 inches apart. Soybeans need to be inoculated with S type inoculant. Recommended Population Sizes. In 1 study, multiple soybean varieties were compared at 6 different seeding rates at research locations across several Midwestern states. Use a fungicide + insecticide seed treatment. When saving seeds from soybeans, separate varieties by at least 10-20 feet. Planting date and field history are primary considerations when making your selection. By late May, producers will see a yield reduction. Seed treatments, proper handling, and diligent planting practices can help establish desired plant … With more than 300 test plots across the country, we have the local data to help you pinpoint the varieties that will best perform on your acres. The soybean planted on April 10, 2019 in the afternoon prior to a cold snap had no difference in germination and emergence compared to the other planting dates. Smith. 1997. The same applies for any known history of Phytophthora, Sudden Death Syndrome, or any other soybean pathogens. The first step to successful soybean planting and subsequent harvest is seed selection. Enlist E3 ® soybeans include the most advanced herbicide-tolerant trait available for this crop, and Pioneer spent years evaluating Enlist E3 ® soybeans for yield performance, defensive traits and agronomic characteristics. Bramlage et al. Seed Coat Regulation of Soybean Seed Imbibition. It is important to place the soybean seed into the ground at a precise depth and in firm contact with the soil so choice of planting equipment is especially critical. Other studies resulted in similar findings with beginning suggested soybean moisture range of 13-16%. It is important to place the seed into the ground at a precise depth and in firm contact with the soil. Plant Physiology 61:525-529. Crop insurance is available for soybean fields planted on or after April 25. Planting fungicide-treated soybean seed – particularly on seed with lower-than-normal germination – is a way to ensure adequate stand potential, he says. This suggests the imbibitional phase reaches completion sooner if seed is planted mid-day into warm temperatures rather than at sunrise into cooler temperatures. To grow soybeans, plant your seeds 1 and ½ inches deep and 3 inches apart in a fertilized seedbed, and give them just enough water to moisten the soil. Our product offering includes all types of farm supplies, clothing, housewares, tools, fencing, and more. Farmers who have never used a soybean fungicide seed treatment may want to reconsider this spring, says Dean Grossnickle, a Syngenta agronomic service representative based in central Iowa. Soybean Germination/Emergence with April Planting Dates Relative to Coincident Air and Soil Temperatures in April and May, University of Nebraska Extension CropWatch, May 16, 2019. This article will take a deeper look into the research on the soybean germination process, particularly when chilling injury can occur, and factors to consider when planting soybean early. The plant has the ability to produce 600 pods per plant, but on average there are 50 to 100 pods per plant that set seed. A minimum plant population is 200 000 plants per ha, while a maximum is 550 000 plants per ha. In the southern states, seed between April and June. The higher the In determining when to put seeds in the ground, soil condition and weather trump date. Journal of Plant Physiology 151:620-626. Avoid planting soybean when a cold rain and cold snap is expected within 24 hours (safer within 48 hours). No-till fields will have cool soils longer into the season than tilled fields and commonly will have more seedling disease problems. soybean fungicide seed treatment may want to reconsider this spring, Why soybean farmers need to manage soybean cyst nematode, Reevaluate your soybean strategy for 2021, USDA announces changes to hemp crop insurance, Analyzing yield barriers, unleashing soil activity, Vise attachment for hitch completes a shop on wheels. Thus, getting a cold rain within 24 hours of planting can lead to chilling injury in soybean and lower stands. Avoid planting soybean when a cold rain and cold snap is expected within 24 hours (safer within 48 hours). 1978. Please refer to it for additional comments. But gaps of a foot or more between plants mean you need to adjust your planter settings. Use the chart below as a reference when determining the right soybean for your operation. A corn planter usually does a better job than a grain drill, though modern drills have much better depth control than older drills. t LSD value used to compare any two means within the same time for the seed part with and without seed coats. After the imbibitional phase ends, the risk of chilling injury also ends. UNL doesn’t have early-planted soybean research relative to a cost-benefit analysis of these treatments. April 19, 2018. Soybeans can be, and often are, no-till drilled into previous crop residue, a move that saves on cost without affecting yield. In their study, Obendorf and Hobbs (1970) found the higher beginning seed moisture content allowed for no reduction in survival, dry matter accumulation or seedling height at the cold temperature imbibition. Weed control is the primary concern through the early stages of plant growth until the canopy closes around late June. Cold rain can increase the imbibitional uptake of cold water into the soybean seed causing chilling injury. 1988. If an insecticide/fungicide seed treatment is used, seeding rates can be reduced by 10,000 to 20,000 seeds per acre. Soybeans need to be inoculated with S type inoculant. Imbibing cold water can lead to “chilling injury”. The bottom line is: Consider planting soybeans if you think soil temperatures won't get cold (conservatively less than 50°F) for at least 24-48 hours after planting. Futures: at least 10 minute delayed. Mark Licht, Iowa State University Extension and outreach cropping systems specialist, says it helps to pay attention to residue distribution at harvest, making it as uniform as possible so there is more residue close to the surface to make planting easier. The fungicide treatment helps protect against seedling diseases and the insecticide treatment protects against bean leaf beetles. Based on this data at these temperatures with paper towel germination, the rate of water uptake slowing over time may indicate that the imbibition phase was complete by 4 hours of this experiment. At least 50˚F. Fortunately, there are many varieties with tolerances to Phytophthora, in addition to seed treatments that target the disease. “Some are planting beans before corn,” says Licht. Parrish. According to Purdue Extension, 67% of Indiana growers plant soybeans one to three weeks earlier than they did 10 years ago. April 24, 2017. Like any input, the cost must be weighed against yield gains. McDonald Jr. et al. I realized that my farm’s service truck had all the tooling my shop had (a welder, torch, fuel supply, air, chop saws, grinders, etc. No need to increase seeding rates. With what is known regarding the soybean germination process and chilling injury, we offer the following early soybean planting considerations. between 60° and 70° F. The beans are not frost-tolerant and will not germinate if the temperature drops too much. Shop Corn Shop Soybeans Shop Alfalfa Shop Cover Crops. Obendorf, R.L. The yield difference between 30-inch rows and rows 20 inches or less can be as much as 2.9 bushels per acre, but there are other considerations. Soybeans are easy to grow and do not require much fertilizer making them an excellent soil building legume for cover crop applications. Considerations when Planting Soybean Early, University of Nebraska Extension CropWatch, April 25, 2019. The soybean is native to East Asia, but today most soybean production takes place in the U.S. and South America. April 20, 2016. Soybeans are an annual legume that is planted in food plots for deer, ducks, dove, quail and other wildlife. To maintain a variety over time, save seeds from between 5-10 plants. Farmers growing both corn and beans often find themselves fighting spring rains to get both crops in the ground on time. Table 1 from their study has been amended by Specht and Rees to show the rate at which water uptake occurred in the seed. Roskruge, C.L. Seed depth will mostly depend on soil type and soil conditions at planting time. Seed treatments, proper handling, and diligent planting practices can help establish desired plant stands. To see all exchange delays and terms of use, please see https://www.barchart.com/solutions/terms. Soybeans are an annual plant… The imbibitional phase may complete without chilling injury in cooler soils (45°F) if the soil is moist but not saturated and no cold rains/cold snaps occur within 24 hours. and M.T. Extension researchers have used seeding rates of 75,000, 125,000, 175,000, and 225,000 seeds per acre and determined how these seeding rates performed both at early and late planting dates and in 15" and 30" row spacing. Communications Bldg.Lincoln, NE 68583-0918. Beans will compensate for plant spacing and other ills. Time is short. Consider seed with genetic resistance, tillage and chemical or biological control to avoid yield loss. If you planted two or more days before the cold rain, there should be no imbibitional injury due to cold temperature. Specht, Jim, Greg Kruger, Jenny Rees, Roger Elmore, Patricio Grassini, Keith Glewen, and Tom Hoegemeyer. April 2016. Soybeans are also sensitive to certain herbicide residues, so care should be taken to ensure carryover will not affect next year’s crop. It was calculated just for the ‘whole seed with the seed coat’. Seeds should be planted between 0.75 and 1.5 inches deep, depending on soil type and tillage. In most situations, 140,000 seeds per acre should result in at least 100,000 plants per acre at harvest. Stewart Seeds has customers dropping as few as 120,000 to 140,000 seeds per acre. Based on formal research reports showing increased yields, we have recommended early soybean planting beginning mid- to late- April. This is a requirement before any subsequent growth can start. Specht, James, Patricio Grassini, Jenny Rees, Nathan Mueller, and Roger Elmore. When planting no-tillage glyphosate-resistant soybeans, such as Roundup Ready, a burn-down herbicide should be used before or at the time of planting if significant weed cover is present. Emergence of pre-May planted soybeans can be delayed by up to 14 days compared to 7 days or fewer in May plantings. Our product offering includes all types of farm supplies, clothing, housewares, tools, fencing, and more. Soybean seed is very sensitive to planting depth, so producers need to be careful and get their crop off to a good start. In an experiment in 2019, Specht planted soybean at mid-day into moist soil on various dates in April. You may want to apply a residual herbicide that will remain active in the soil for an extended period of time and act on successive weed germinations. Because the seed at 16% moisture did well in all three situations, they suggest that a higher moisture content soybean seed (16%) can improve seedling establishment in cold soil. Beans can be treated with any number of fungicide and pesticide products. “If we are in the 100,000- to 120,000-plants-per-acre (ppa) range (at harvest), we are fine,” says Shaun Casteel, Purdue Extension agronomist. A comparison of water uptake (g/kg fresh weight) in the axis, cotyledon, and whole seed of soybeans soaked in moistened paper towels for 48 hours without (WO) and with (W) the seed coats and the ratio (without/with) of the values at an alternating 16hr/8hr 68F/84F thermoperiod in a 100% RH germination chamber. Crop Science 21:312-317. Rural King is America's Farm and Home Store. Such research could provide valuable data for soybean producers scheduling April planting dates. Example: The seed water content change from 0 to 2 hours was 204 g – 73 g=131/2 hours=65.5 g/kg/hour. Research has also shown the seed moisture and seed coat quality (damaged, wrinkled from wetting/drying) can also impact the imbibitional phase.