In 1871, a single seller of ammunition provided three tons of powder and 16 tons (32,000 lb) of shot during a nesting. Although the passenger pigeon population was estimated at 3–5 billion individuals in the early and middle 1800s, the last passenger pigeon died at the Cincinnati Zoo on September 1, 1914 (). Schorger, The Passenger Pigeon: Its Natural History and Extinction (Madison, Wisconsin: The University of Wisconsin Press, 1955), 199-204; Chih-Ming Hung, Pei-Jen L. Shaner, Wei-Chung Liu, Te-Chin Chu, Wen-San Huang, and Shou-Hsien Li, “Drastic population fluctuations explain the rapid extinction of the passenger pigeon,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Science vol.  Recognizing the decline of the wild populations, Whitman and the Cincinnati Zoo consistently strove to breed the surviving birds, including attempts at making a rock dove foster passenger pigeon eggs. JOEL SARTORE/National Geographic Creative, © Bailey Library and Archives, Denver Museum of Nature & Science, Liz is a senior correspondent covering many aspects of biology for, the species had relatively low genetic diversity, the passenger pigeon’s huge population is what made it vulnerable. The bird was described as a "perfect scourge" by some farming communities, and hunters were employed to "wage warfare" on the birds to save grain, as shown in another newspaper illustration from 1867 captioned as "Shooting wild pigeons in Iowa". The story of the passenger pigeon is unlike that of any other bird. When Europeans settled in North America in the late 1500s, the E. migratorius population was as high as six billion in its forest habitat in eastern North America, up to 40 percent of the total bird population on the continent.  Speaking on May 11, 1947, Leopold remarked: Men still live who, in their youth, remember pigeons.  John James Audubon described the courtship of the passenger pigeon as follows: Thither the countless myriads resort, and prepare to fulfill one of the great laws of nature. , The passenger pigeon was an important source of food for the people of North America. The passenger pigeon was once the most abundant bird in North America, with a population possibly up to five billion. Also, the accumulation of flammable debris (such as limbs broken from trees and foliage killed by excrement) at these sites may have increased both the frequency and intensity of forest fires, which would have favored fire-tolerant species, such as bur oaks, black oaks, and white oaks over less fire-tolerant species, such as red oaks, thus helping to explain the change in the composition of eastern forests since the passenger pigeon's extinction (from white oaks, bur oaks, and black oaks predominating in presettlement forests, to the “dramatic expansion” of red oaks today). , Of the hundreds of surviving skins, only one appears to be aberrant in color—an adult female from the collection of Walter Rothschild, Natural History Museum at Tring. On the sides of the neck and the upper mantle were iridescent display feathers that have variously been described as being a bright bronze, violet or golden-green, depending on the angle of the light. Illustrations of the passenger pigeon were often drawn after stuffed birds, and Charles R. Knight is the only "serious" artist known to have drawn the species from life. , Generally, the eggs were laid during the first two weeks of April across the pigeon's range. The sheer number of juveniles on the ground meant that only a small percentage of them were killed; predator satiation may therefore be one of the reasons for the extremely social habits and communal breeding of the species.  A 2018 study found that the dietary range of the passenger pigeon was restricted to certain sizes of seed, due to the size of its gape. The male was 390 to 410 mm (15.4 to 16.1 in) in length, mainly gray on the upperparts, lighter on the underparts, with iridescent bronze feathers on the neck, and black spots on the wings. The flocks ranged from only 1.0 m (3.3 ft) above the ground in windy conditions to as high as 400 m (1,300 ft). The birds frequently piled on top of each other's backs to roost. It was browner on the upperparts and paler buff brown and less rufous on the underparts than the male. 2014; 111 :10636–10641.  Though the western forests were ecologically similar to those in the east, these were occupied by band-tailed pigeons, which may have kept out the passenger pigeons through competitive exclusion. This would have prevented it from eating some of the seeds of trees such as red oaks, the black oak, and the American chestnut. They also found that seeds would be completely destroyed during digestion, which therefore hindered dispersal of seeds this way. There were several other factors contributing to the decline and subsequent extinction of the species, including shrinking of the large breeding populations necessary for preservation of the species and widespread deforestation, which destroyed its habitat. The authors of the study suggested that the ancestors of the passenger pigeon may have colonized the New World from South East Asia by flying across the Pacific Ocean, or perhaps across Beringia in the north. Four billion passenger pigeons once darkened the skies of North America, but by the end of the 19th century, they were all gone. , If the pigeon became alert, it would often stretch out its head and neck in line with its body and tail, then nod its head in a circular pattern. , The passenger pigeon foraged in flocks of tens or hundreds of thousands of individuals that overturned leaves, dirt, and snow with their bills in search of food. , The passenger pigeon wintered from Arkansas, Tennessee, and North Carolina south to Texas, the Gulf Coast, and northern Florida, though flocks occasionally wintered as far north as southern Pennsylvania and Connecticut. 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