Creediidae - (Sandburrowers) Because of the varied behavior and often attractive colors and moderate size, cichlids are commonly kept as ornamental fish. 9848). Slightly bulging eyes. 39189). The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). 7463); especially diverse in South African and southern Australian waters (Ref. Another source of frustration concerns the generic assignment of Central American taxa, and a few South American taxa, which were excluded from the catch-all genus Cichlasoma by Kullander (1983). Associated with siphonophores, including feeding on them. Chiasmodontidae - (Snaketooth fishes) One short spine on anal fin; soft rays about 26. Assumed to guard eggs in their tubes (Ref. - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Chaet- (gr.) (= former Coracinidae) Vertebrae 22-31. Vertebrae 46-55. The current estimate of 450 South American taxa is based on species already represented in museum collections; it can be assumed that new collections will bring in many more new taxa. Airbreathing through suprabranchial organ. 5. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. The insertion of the hyomandibula relatively far posterior, well separated from the posterior margin of the orbit. Freshwater habitats in southeastern Australia and Tasmania. Dorsal fin single, continuous or almost separate; spines 14-22; soft rays 19-39. Erythrocytes lacking in most or all species and is thought to be probably compensated for by the cold, well-oxygenated habitat, a large volume of blood circulation and skin respiration. Pelagic eggs Anal spines at least 3. Pumps water with a branchiostegal instead of an opercular pump (Ref. A few Neotropical cichlids are recorded from brackish water conditions. Symbiosis between a chaenopsid and a stony coral has been reported from the Caribbean. Gill membranes united to isthmus. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. Scales ctenoid or cycloid. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to Hawaii and Easter I. The Anguillidae were placed in “magnetic displacement” experiment where the geomagnetic north could be altered, and their actions could be monitored. Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. Subfamily Pseudamiinae Smith 1954 is found along the continental coasts and islands of the Red Sea, Pelvic fins absent, pelvic girdle present. No cirri on nape, may be present elsewhere on head. Higher level names include bujurqui (Peru, most cichlids), acará (Brazil, most cichlids), mochoroca (Venezuela), mojarra (Ecuador, Colombia, throughout Central America), krobia (Surinam), prapra (French Guiana). Kullander (1998) estimated that there are about ten undescribed North-Central American cichlid taxa and about 160 undescribed South American taxa. Spinous dorsal fin lacking. 75992). Günther (1868, based on several shorter papers) described and illustrated a large part of the Central American cichlid fauna, followed by Regan (1906-1908). Recent generic revisions cover Crenicichla (Ploeg, 1991; innumerable errors and inconsistencies), Gymnogeophagus (Reis & Malabarba, 1988), Apistogramma (Kullander, 1980, somewhat outdated), Cichlasoma (Kullander, 1983), Teleocichla (Kullander, 1988), Retroculus (Gosse, 1971), Geophagus s. lato (Gosse, 1976, somewhat outdated), Biotoecus (Kullander, 1989), and Mesonauta (Kullander & Silfvergrip, 1991). The Dwarf Puffer is quite an adorable little fish that’s easy for beginner aquarists … - a genus change for the other Datnioididae species that have been assigned to Coius but are not Anabantidae. Morphology: presence of convexitas superaxillaris, very large spherical protrusions that are elastic by touch on the body, located immediately under the base of the pectoral fin; with possible function in the system of cold resistance (anti-freeze secretion) and domination (Ref. Centropomidae - (Snooks) Feed on zooplankton. About 1 m maximum length. Common names: Veilfins - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); gymnoptera and Dipterygonotus balteatus; longitudinal axis from tip of snout to middle of caudal fin passing through centre of eye; mouth small and highly protrusible; small or minute conical teeth; axil of pectoral fins black (Ref. Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Seafood Watch, one of the better-known sustainable seafood advisory lists, recommends consumers avoid eating anguillid eels due to significant pressures on worldwide populations. Vomerine teeth present; palatine teeth present in all except Cryptacanthodes aleutensis. Dorsal fins far apart. Anal fin soft rays 4-10. Caudal fin separate or joined to dorsal and anal fins in varying degrees. Frequently burrow in sand. Spawning takes place in open water near the surface. Mouthbrooding species are usually biparental, and eggs are guarded on a substrate prior to oral incubation which starts with advanced eggs or newly hatched larvae. 1. Parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and substratebrooding of eggs then mouthbrooding of young. Datnioididae - (Freshwater tripletails) Distinguished in having a relatively long palatine compared to the length of the vomer; rather than proximal, the post-temporal ventral arm is free from the neurocranium; the posterior portion of the lateral line lacking embedded, tubed scales; long upper jaw in both sexes, surpassing the posterior margin of the orbit; the insertion of the hyomandibula on the neurocranium is shifted posteriorly away from the orbit; the sphenotic bearing a small lateral spine; dorsal arm of the scapula reduced and free from the cleithrum (except Mccoskerichthys and at least one species of Neoclinus); unbranched caudal-fin rays (Ref. Palatines toothless. The first modern phylogenetic revision of the Neotropical cichlids was presented by Cichocki (1976), and most recently Kullander (1988) and Farias et al. - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); Also Ref. One lateral line; snout not produced. Pelvic fins lacking in Parona signata. Paracaristiinae ((Paracaristius, Neocaristius): small mouth, end of maxillary bone hardly extends beyond vertical through middle of eye; upper jaw totally covered by suborbitalia; wide suborbital region (width 9.5-14.5% SL); Cephalic mechanosensory canals not opening to the outside. 95096). Rarely brackish. Protogynous hermaphrodites, with few dominant males. Mouthbrooding species are usually biparental, and eggs are guarded on a substrate prior to oral incubation which starts with advanced eggs or newly hatched larvae. Distribution: Indo-West Pacific from South Africa to Hawaii and Easter I. Body shape quite variable, mostly moderately deep and compressed. Axillary scale at base of pelvics. The sagitta features an anterocaudal pseudocolliculum having a long and thick ventral part which is separated from the crista inferior by a long, deep and sharp furrow (Gaemers, 1985). Propensity to occur in algae and seagrass areas (Ref. Anal fin 2 spines. Swim bladder usually absent in adults, except in Phenablennius, Omox, and most Nemophini. Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Hypopterus (1 sp. Eggs are typically deposited on a substrate and both parents guard offspring over several weeks, even for some time after the young are free-swimming. Caproidae - (Boarfishes) Hypopterus (1 sp. The loss of a major structural association between parts A2 and Aw of the adductor mandibulae muscle and the musculous insertion of a large ventral section of A2 onto the posterior border of the ascending process of the anguloarticular (Stiassny, 1981); Centrolophidae - (Medusafishes) Suggested new common name for this family from Ref. Nasal bones paired. Such rivers are unstable, their beds shift during floods. Oceanic. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). The presence of an extensive cartilaginous cap on the anterior margin of each second epibranchial bone (Stiassny, 1981); Some of the most enigmatic cases includes ‘Cichlasoma’ urophthalmus, of which Hubbs (1936) described numerous subspecies. Distribution: southern Australia. 9701) suggested Arripididae as another spelling. Some in brackish water; some (e.g. ), Lates (9 spp.) With 35-40 vertebrae. Dorsal fin continuous, with 6-16 spines and 15-30 soft rays. Slightly emarginate caudal fin. Maximum length more than 38 cm. Worldwide. Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. Usually with fringes on lips. Maximum length about 8 cm. 75992). Body compressed; usually elongated to anguilliform in Chaenopsis. Palatine and vomer toothless; caudal fin rounded; rounded lobes on anal and second dorsal fins giving fish the appearance of having three tails; dorsal fin with 12 spines and 15-16 soft rays; 24 vertebrae. A formal classification down to tribe is provided by Kullander (1988). Body compressed; usually elongated to anguilliform in Chaenopsis. The oral jaws are generally highly movable and protrusible, and tooth shape varies greatly, although most Neotropical cichlids have simple, subconical, unicuspid teeth, whereas African cichlids commonly have laterally bicuspid or tricuspid oral teeth. 7463). Description: Oblong to fusiform, moderately compressed, medium-sized to small (to about Higher level names include bujurqui (Peru, most cichlids), acará (Brazil, most cichlids), mochoroca (Venezuela), mojarra (Ecuador, Colombia, throughout Central America), krobia (Surinam), prapra (French Guiana). Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Trunk lateral line represented by widely spaced pit organs (superficial neuromasts). Chaetobranchopsis, Chaetobranchus and Satanoperca acuticeps are plankton feeders. Most species live in self-made burrows in muddy or fine-sand areas. Cichla, large Crenicichla species, Petenia, Parachromis, Caquetaia, Astronotus, and Acaronia, feed on fishes and large invertebrates. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Vertebrae 71-88. Three spines in anal fin, soft rays usually 13 or 14. Require unrestricted space, hence unsuitable for home aquaria. Callionymidae - (Dragonets) The pelvic fins are under the head, anterior to the broad pectoral fins. Recent generic revisions cover Crenicichla (Ploeg, 1991; innumerable errors and inconsistencies), Gymnogeophagus (Reis & Malabarba, 1988), Apistogramma (Kullander, 1980, somewhat outdated), Cichlasoma (Kullander, 1983), Teleocichla (Kullander, 1988), Retroculus (Gosse, 1971), Geophagus s. lato (Gosse, 1976, somewhat outdated), Biotoecus (Kullander, 1989), and Mesonauta (Kullander & Silfvergrip, 1991). Scaleless body (lateral line scales modified in few species). (= former Coracinidae) Dorsal fin with more spines than soft rays; all fin rays simple. Distribution: Eastern Atlantic (off Europe and Mediterranean) and Indo-West Pacific (including New Zealand). Body elongate, rounded anteriorly and compressed posteriorly; head broad, depressed, with eyes set high. Scales covering head (including maxilla, snout, and occiput). Spines in dorsal fin 17-28; soft rays 10-38; total dorsal fin rays 29-57. Conical or villiform jaw teeth. Cichlids are distributed in fresh- and brackish waters in Central and South America, Texas (1 species), West Indies, Africa, Madagascar, Syria, Israel, Iran, Sri Lanka, and coastal southern India. Marine, coastal and brackish water. Country monographs of cichlids are available for Peru (Kullander, 1986) and Surinam (Kullander & Nijssen, 1989). Lower jaw projecting; mouth large, oblique to nearly vertical. Scales in lateral lines may be over 100, usually 20-50. The family Cichlidae was first monographed by Heckel (1840), based on the Natterer collection from Brazil (illustrations in Riedl-Dorn, 2000). Most Atlantic coastal rivers of Brazil have 1-3 species of cichlids. Pelagic eggs Lateral line 33-73 scales. Spines in anal fin 3-15 (generally 3); soft rays 4-15 (a few with 30). Typically live on sandy bottoms and feed on small benthic invertebrates; some species are reef dwellers. Upper margin of operculum with fingerlike subdivisions. Mouth small with some incisiform teeth. Distribution: Antarctic and southern South America. Preopercle and infraorbitals with smooth margins. Most Atlantic coastal rivers of Brazil have 1-3 species of cichlids. Swim bladder absent. Oral incubation, or mouthbrooding, has been recorded for many Geophagus, Gymnogeophagus, and Satanoperca species, but also for one species of Aequidens and one species of Heros. Vertebrae 24 (11+13). Pelagic eggs - a change of the family name in Datnioididae (= former Datnioidae); Teeth in jaws comblike, fixed or movable (canine teeth occasionally present). Lateral line extending onto caudal fin. Distinct sagittal crest; pleural ribs present. Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. The depressed head, its flattened ventral surface, combined with the broad pectoral and pelvic fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the swift-flowing currents. The geographical distribution includes freshwaters of Africa (900 valid species, estimated more than 1300 species), the Jordan Valley in the Middle East (four species), Iran (one species), southern India and Sri Lanka (3 species, also in brackish water), Madagascar (17 valid species, some also in brackish water), Cuba and Hispaniola (4 valid species, some in brackish water), North America and isthmian Central America (95 valid species), and South America (290 valid species ) (Kullander, 1998, updated). Apparently spawns in the spring and has a marine larval stage, but the actual spawning site is unknown. 27959). Geographical ranges are commonly limited to a single river or even one or a few streams, reflecting both ecological constraints and drainage basin histories. Morphology: Continuous dorsal fin with 0-4 spines (often 3). Maximum length about 1.4 m. Gut coiled several times. First dorsal fin with 6-8 spines; 8-14 soft rays in the second. Snout fleshy and jutting beyond lower jaw. The stomach has an extendible blind pouch (Zihler, 1982) Body elongate. Opercular bone very much splintered or fimbriated. Centrarchidae - (Sunfishes) Epineural ribs in some trunk vertebrae fused proximally to corresponding pleural ribs. Distribution: tropical western and eastern Atlantic, Indian and Pacific (mainly Indo-Pacific). Among Neotropical taxa, lengths range from about 25-30 mm adult size in Apistogramma and Taeniacara, to about 1 meter in Cichla temensis. A few mouthbrooding species practice exclusive maternal brood care, with a minimum delay between egg-laying and oral incubation (Gymnogeophagus balzanii, NE Colombian Geophagus species). To about 83 cm maximum length (reported for Micropterus salmoides). Feeds on crustaceans and other invertebrates. Chiasmodontidae - (Snaketooth fishes) Vertebrae often 28-44 (135 in Xiphasia) (Ref. Many feed on a combination of coelenterate polyps or tentacles, small invertebrates, fish eggs, and filamentous algae while others are specialists or planktivores. Marine; in deep waters. Pelvic fin 1 spine, 5 soft rays. The northernmost species are Herichthys cyanoguttatus from the lower Rio Grande drainage in Texas, USA, on the Atlantic coast, and ‘Cichlasoma beani’, which reaches north to the Río Yaquí on the Pacific coast of Mexico. Reason of egg production rain is not well documented spine ) – go to 9 and fins! For pelvic fins are hydrodynamically attuned to the swift-flowing currents Rathbunella broadly joined and a. Have no parental care in 3 forms: mouthbrooding, substratebrooding, and Hawaii variability... Their body movement depends highly on undulation originating near the surface leading-edge spine ) – go to 9 years age... Burrowing in soft substrates usually 18-23 mouth is small and very colorful ; inhabits rocks and corals April and in... 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