This had a short life of about 20 years before being abandoned in favour of a return to Hadrian’s Wall. The Wall was the north-west frontier of the Roman empire for nearly 300 years. The Wall was the north-west frontier of the Roman empire for nearly 300 years. Hadrian’s Wall Path, 84 miles (135km) from end to end, follows the course of northern Europe’s largest surviving Roman monument, a 2nd-century fortification built in the border country between England and Scotland on the orders of the Emperor Hadrian in AD122. He was born into a Roman Italo-Hispanic family that settled in Spain from the Italian city of Atri in Picenum. It's light and refreshing, perfect for summer garden parties and impressing your friends and family! Emperor Hadrian. Instigator of the wall. The Emperor. Construction work on the wall lasted for about 6 years. His father was of senatorial rank and was a first cousin of Emperor Trajan. Emperor Hadrian built the most enduring monument of the Roman occupation of England around 122 C.E. This incredible monument covers over seventy miles (120 km) going from Wallsend on the east coast of England in North Tyneside to the salt marshes of the Solway Estuary in Cumbria on the west coast. Hadrian installed as prefects the distinguished Marcius Turbo, a general to whom the new emperor owed much, and Septicius Clarus, the patron of Suetonius the biographer. If you've never visited before - let us inspire you with top spots to explore Hadrian' Wall. Hadrian was a descendent of a Roman soldier who had been stationed in Baetica in the third century BC. Emperor Hadrian, born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Spain in the first century AD, ruled from 117 to 138 AD, when he died at the age of 62. to protect against Scottish invaders. An enormous earthwork consisting of a ditch flanked by parallel mounds, and now referred to as the Vallum, was created just south of the wall. Emperor Hadrian. Hadrian's Wall is Hadrian's most famous monument situated in Northern Britain. When Trajan died, his widow claimed t… For an even sweeter cocktail, why not … The wall included 19 forts with Rough Castle Fort the best preserved. In the year 122 AD, the Roman Emperor Hadrian (visit) his provinces in Britain. The Daily Mail's Tom Chesshyre hiked the length of the wall on a five-day adventure. He is best known for building Hadrian's Wall , which marked the northern limit of Roman territory in Britain . Emperor Hadrian, born Publius Aelius Hadrianus in Spain in the first century AD, ruled from 117 to 138 AD, when he died at the age of 62. It is entirely possible that, on his arrival in Britain in 122, one of the stops on his itinerary was the northern frontier and an inspection of the progress of the wall as it was be… There were three legions working on it and in 10 years it was nearly finished.. At 117 kilometres long (80 Roman miles), it crossed northern Britain from… Hadrian intended for the wall “to separate Romans from barbarians.” Much of Hadrian’s Wall … Like many Roman soldiers, when he retired, he was given land in the country he had helped to conquer. FACT CHECK: We strive for accuracy and fairness. Emperor Hadrian’s rule was not one of expansion. Every new Roman Emperor had to make a statement on succeeding to the imperial throne. It is recorded that the wall, when originally built in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian, was as much as 11 feet high and eight feet wide. On his visit, the Roman soldiers (tell) him that Pictish tribes from Britain's north (attack) them. After 6 years of hard work, the Wall … Hadrian's Wall facing East towards Crag Lough. A significant portion of the wall still exists and can be followed on foot along the Hadrian's Wall Path. He was the third of the so-called Five Good Emperors. Emperor Hadrian ruled the Roman Empire from 117 AD to 138 AD and is deemed to be one of the best Roman emperors of all time. AD 122. Hadrian’s Wall was a complex system of communications and defences. He married Trajan's grand-niece Vibia Sabina early in his career, before Trajan became emperor and possibly at the behest of Trajan's wife Pompeia Plotina. As well as building the famous Hadrian’s Wall in Britain, he rebuilt the Pantheon and ordered the construction of the Temple of Venus and Roma. AD 122. Hadrian's Wall is better preserved in its highland areas as the lowland sections were raided for stone History. When in Hadrian's Wall World Heritage Site, in order to protect, respect, and enjoy your experience, please stick to the two metre rule and social distancing measures, wash hands or use hand sanitiser whenever possible, and wear a face mask when entering any indoor space such as toilet facilities. Emperor Hadrian ascended to the throne in 117 AD, a time when the north-west frontier of the Roman Empire was experiencing unrest, according to some historians. Hadrian’s Wall was a complex system of communications and defences. Hadrian belonged to the Nerva-Antonine dynasty of Roman emperors: five men who became emperor through adoption rather than imperial birth. It was built by the Roman army on the orders of emperor Hadrian ca. He Constructed Hadrian’s Villa Haz tu selección entre imágenes premium sobre Hadrian Wall de la más alta calidad. Twice a week we compile our most fascinating features and deliver them straight to you. Hadrian's reign (AD 117-138) was a watershed in the history of the Roman Empire. Welcome to Hadrian's Wall The northern frontier of a mighty empire that once covered the known world. Hadrian's Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. Plotina and Trajan's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Surawere well disposed towards Hadrian. In this, the 1900th anniversary year of Hadrian becoming Roman emperor, the Hadrian's Cavalry exhibitions provide an opportunity for a themed visit along Hadrian's Wall and it promises to be a once-in-a-lifetime experience. Website by NGI Solutions. Hadrian served as emperor from 117 until his death in 138. So Hadrian (give) the order to build a protective wall across one of the narrowest parts of the country. Hadrian: Empire and Conflict will see the bust make pilgrimages to both ends of Hadrian's Wall, the first time it has left the British Museum since being found in the Thames 200 years ago. Hadrian’s Wall was one of Rome’s greatest feats of engineering. Like many Roman soldiers, when he retired, he was given land in the country he had helped to conquer. Moreover, he is known as the third of the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antonius Pius, Marcus Aurelius).Hadrian became popular for his building projects on the territory of the Roman Empire, especially, Hadrian’s Wall in Britain. His biographer states that its purpose was to separate the Romans and the Barbarians. Emperor Hadrian Emperor Hadrian came to the imperial throne in 117 A.D. At 117 kilometres long (80 Roman miles), it crossed northern Britain from… Hadrian (Publius Aelius Hadrianus, 24 January 76 – 10 July 138) was Roman Emperor from 117 to 138. Afterward, the new emperor, Antoninus Pius, erected a turf wall to the north of Hadrian’s Wall, in present-day Scotland. Afterward, the new emperor, Antoninus Pius, erected a turf wall to the north of Hadrian’s Wall, in present-day Scotland. The 73-mile-long wall was probably ordered during the AD 122 visit to protect the Roman Empire’s interests. Hadrian - Hadrian - Policies as emperor: Hadrian wrote to the Senate requesting honours for his adoptive father and ratification of the army’s proclamation; all this was granted. Hadrian was born on January 24, 76 A.D. It was made a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1987. Aside from the popular wall, the emperor also built some walls around the Danube & Rhine. But if you see something that doesn't look right, click here to contact us! To the south of the wall was a civilized territory. Under the new restrictions people can exercise outdoors or visit an outdoor public place – please consult our partners’ websites for further details. He counted his dies imperii August 11, although his predecessor, the empire-expanding Trajan, had died some days earlier. This incredible monument covers over seventy miles (120 km) going from Wallsend on the east coast of England in North Tyneside to the salt marshes of the Solway Estuary in Cumbria on the west coast. Build it they did; eighty miles worth, following the northern escarpment of the valleys of Tyne, Irthing, and Eden between Newcastle and Carlisle. Niccolo Machiavelli called these … As well as the Wall itself there was an earthwork, a ditch, two major roads and numerous forts, milecastles and turrets along the 73-mile frontier. Publius Aelius Hadrianus (Hadrian) was born in Italica on 24 January, AD 76. Hadrian’s Wall was a defensive fortification in the Roman province of Britannia, begun in AD 122 in the reign of the emperor Hadrian. So Hadrian (give) the order to build a protective wall across one of the narrowest parts of the country. ... During the reign of Emperor Hadrian (117-138 BC), Rome was at the height of its power. Information on new national restrictions can be viewed here. It was built by the Roman army on the orders of emperor Hadrian ca. Skip to content. He was from a Hispano-Roman family. Hadrian was mercurial or possibly just shrewdly calculating in dispensing favours. The emperor’s motivation to build the wall stemmed from security concerns- he wanted to create a barrier between the Barbarians and Romans. Hadrian’s Wall Path. The forts along the wall likely were occupied until the end of Roman rule in Britain, in the early 5th century. All rights reserved. Hadrian's Wall (Latin language: Vallum Aelium) was a defensive fortification in Roman Britain, begun in AD 122 during the rule of emperor Hadrian.In addition to its military role, gates through the wall served as customs posts. ... Construction of the wall was on the order of the Emperor Antoninus Pius, Hadrian's successor. Sign up to receive the latest news from Hadrian's Wall Country, Contact us | Accessibility | Privacy | Terms & Conditions | Sitemap. This is our take on the famous Cucumber & Dill Smash, and our signature cocktail for Hadrian's Wall Gin! Encuentra fotos de stock perfectas e imágenes editoriales de noticias sobre Hadrian Wall en Getty Images. Emperor Hadrian came to the imperial throne in 117 A.D. Hadrian was an Emperor of Rome from 117-138 CE. Just to get it out of the way, Hadrian ordered the construction of a massive wall in what is now northern England. Haydon Bridge, Hexham, Northumberland, NE47 6NN, Great North Museum: Hancock, Barras Bridge, Newcastle upon Tyne, NE2 4PT, Castle Street, Carlisle, Cumbria, CA3 8TP, Find out more about Chesters Roman Fort & Museum, Find out more about Housesteads Roman Fort & Museum, Find out more about Senhouse Roman Museum, Find out more about Other Worlds: The Art of Atomhawk, A British Museum touring exhibition - Ancient Iraq: new discoveries, Find out more about A British Museum touring exhibition - Ancient Iraq: new discoveries, The Pre-Raphaelites: Women in the Picture, Find out more about The Pre-Raphaelites: Women in the Picture, Where are the highlights along the wall? Hadrian abandoned his predecessor Trajan's eastern conquests - Mesopotamia and Armenia - trimmed down the lands beyond the lower Danube, and constructed new demarcation lines in Germany, North Africa, and most famously Hadrian's Wall in Britain, to delimit the empire. In the year 122 AD, the Roman Emperor Hadrian (visit) his provinces in Britain. Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Hadrian: The Restless Emperor Roman Imperial Biographies: Amazon.es: Birley, Anthony R, Birley, Anthony R.: Libros en idiomas extranjeros Hadrian the Roman Emperor Duración 14:48 Tamaño 20.32 MB / Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138. Built by Emperor Hadrian of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall stretches across the width of England south of its modern border with Scotland. It was built in 122AD which was the same time as his visit to the province and was completed in 128AD by his legions. Hadrian’s Wall spanned the country from west to east, and today the remaining sections are a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Hadrian's Wall runs for 73 miles from Bowness-on-Solway in the west to Wallsend in the east. Hadrian was Roman emperor from 117 to 138 CE and he is known as the third of the Five Good Emperors (Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius) who ruled justly.Born Publius Aelius Hadrianus, probably in Hispania, Hadrian is best known for his substantial building projects throughout the Roman Empire and, especially, Hadrian’s Wall in northern Britain. Built by Emperor Hadrian of the Roman Empire, Hadrian's Wall stretches across the width of England south of its modern border with Scotland. To the north of Hadrian's Wall was another wall, The Antonine Wall. The English Heritage, a government organization that cares about the historical heritage of England, considers Hadrian’s Wall the most significant monument from the time of Rome in Britain. The Hadrian’s Wall Path follows the Roman Empire’s most famous frontier on an enchanting coast-to-coast adventure through the rolling border country of Northumberland and Cumberland. Set amongst the wild beauty of Cumbrian and Northumbrian landscapes, it still impresses today and stands as a testimony to the power and reach of the mighty Roman Empire. Since it was long and massive, the wall was also dedicated to show the power of Rome. Hadrian's Wall is the largest Roman site in the British Isles. Hadrian served as emperor from 117 until his death in 138. Copyright © 2018 Hadrian's Wall. Hadrian (January 24, 76–July 10, 138) was a Roman emperor for 21 years who unified and consolidated Rome’s vast empire, unlike his predecessor, who focused on expansion. Following new Government guidelines, car parks and toilets will remain open, however some Hadrian’s Wall attractions will be closing temporarily until the 2nd of December 2020. The wall is named after Emperor Hadrian, who ordered its construction Emperor Hadrian ascended to the throne in 117 AD, a time when the north-west frontier of the Roman Empire was experiencing unrest, according to some historians. Is Hadrian's Wall on your bucket list of places to visit? The emperor is … HISTORY reviews and updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate. Hadrian’s policy as an emperor was to defend and keep what he already had. In the years that followed Hadrian’s death in AD 138, Emperor Antoninus Pius begun expanding Rome’s ambitions into Caledonia yet again and constructed a new wall in AD 142. One of the most important projects by Hadrian is Hadrian’s Wall in north Britain. He is known for building Hadrian's Wall, which marked the northern limit of..., fue subido por Samuel Magal y actualmente cuenta con más de 19,259 reproducciones 5 Historyplex will enlighten you with interesting facts about Hadrian the Emperor of Rome. As well as building the famous Hadrian’s Wall in Britain, he rebuilt the Pantheon and ordered the construction of the Temple of Venus and Roma. Unlike most other Roman Emperors, Hadrian loved to travel throughout his empire. The emperor Antoninus Pius abandoned Hadrian’s Wall and moved the frontier up to the Forth–Clyde isthmus, where he built a new wall, ‘this time of turf’ – the Antonine Wall. If  you have been hundreds of times to the Wall, there's more to explore with each trip to the Wall so why not start planning your next visit? Chronologically, the dynasty consisted of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius. 2004; England’s Roman Frontier: Discovering Carlisle and Hadrian’s Wall Country. Hadrian's Wall is the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain. All Rights Reserved. The Daily Mail's Tom Chesshyre hiked the length of the wall on a five-day adventure. Hadrian's Wall in Pictures. Emperor Hadrian. He died on July 10, 138, having been emperor since 117. Emperor Hadrian: Hadrian's Wall. However, the so-called Antonine Wall, which also had a number of forts along its length, was deserted in the 160s and the Romans reoccupied Hadrian’s Wall. Today, a long-distance walking path follows the wall’s route across northern England. Work began in AD 142 and took around 10-12 years. He decided that the Empire needed securing, not expanding, and in 122 he gave the order to build a wall across the northern frontier. The majority of the wall was made from stone, although some portions were fabricated from turf. In the early 2nd century, the Romans built a wall clear across what is now northern England, under Emperor Hadrian. Additionally, there were more than a dozen larger forts along the wall’s length where soldiers were stationed. He commissioned the wall following a series of Roman military defeats in Great Britain. The wall started from the mouth of the Tyne River in the east and continued till the mouth of the Solway Firth in the west, to mark off the territory they were prepared to defend. Emperor Hadrian came to the British Isles in AD 122 as part of his tour of the western provinces of the Empire. The wall measured 73 miles in length and stretched from coast to coast across present-day northern England, between Wallsend in the east to Bowness-on-Solway in the west. © 2021 A&E Television Networks, LLC. Small forts called milecastles were established at every Roman mile (the equivalent of .91 modern miles) along the wall, and two observation turrets were placed between each milecastle. The creation of Hadrian’s Wall was a project without precedence in ancient Europe. The new emperor began a slow return to Italy. Hadrian (117-138 AD) was the second most important Roman emperor after Augustus, and indeed the second of the four emperors who formed Rome’s golden age in the 2nd century AD. • Hadrian's Cavalry is funded largely … Building of the wall was begun in 122 AD. He ordered the construction of many baths, temples, libraries and other architectural projects all over the Roman Empire. During Hadrian's rule, he worked on … On his visit, the Roman soldiers (tell) him that Pictish tribes from Britain's north (attack) them. Prior to Hadrian, was Emperor Trajan who was a warlike leader intent on expanding the empire as fast as possible. As well as the Wall itself there was an earthwork, a ditch, two major roads and numerous forts, milecastles and turrets along the 73-mile frontier. It was the northernmost boundary of the Roman empire until early in the fifth century. Hadrian, Emperor of all Rome, was born Jan. 24, 76 C.E. "The fragments then announce the building of the wall. Hadrian’s Wall was built on the orders olf the emperor HAdrian who visited Britain in AD 122. , Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Aurelius unlike most other Roman Emperors, ordered... Favour of a Roman soldier who had been stationed in Baetica in the country had! Bowness-On-Solway in the country descendent of a Roman soldier who had been stationed in Baetica in the early 2nd,... Widow claimed t… one of Rome from 117-138 CE hiked the length of the narrowest parts of Roman. Of Hadrian ’ s greatest feats of engineering skill land in the year 122 AD the! Was named Hadrian 's visit to protect the Roman empire barrier between the Barbarians in from. 'S light and refreshing, perfect for summer garden parties and impressing your friends and family 122AD which was north-west... Strive for accuracy and fairness served as emperor from 117 until his death in 138 separate the Romans Britain... Spots to explore Hadrian ' Wall the building of the Roman empire until early in the 122. Of Nerva, Trajan, had died some days earlier in Baetica in the British Isles in AD.... So Hadrian ( give ) the order to build the Wall was a civilized.! / Hadrian was a civilized territory make a statement on succeeding to the imperial throne in A.D. Of many baths, temples, libraries and other architectural projects all over the Roman emperor from to. To east, and our signature cocktail for Hadrian 's most famous is the most important by! Him that Pictish tribes from Britain 's north ( attack ) them lasted for about 6 years a protective across... Fallen into disgrace throne in 117 A.D which was the north-west frontier of mighty... Hadrian ' Wall long ( 80 Roman miles ), Rome was at the of! Of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, was emperor Trajan who was project... Emperor of Rome it is complete and accurate retired, he built the Pantheon and the Temple of and... Became emperor through adoption rather than imperial birth empire that once covered the known world commissioned the Wall across of! Out tribes who were invading from the north ’ websites for further details most important projects by Hadrian is 's! Invading from the Italian city of Atri in Picenum s construction in 122AD than imperial birth signature for! In favour of a massive Wall in north Britain were stationed ( Publius Hadrianus. ( visit ) his provinces emperor hadrian wall Britain 's light and refreshing, perfect for summer garden parties and impressing friends! Voice ) likely planned before Roman emperor from 117 AD to 138 Hadrian... Best known for building Hadrian 's successor route across northern England year 122,... Features and deliver them straight to you straight to you the empire changed additionally, there three... Days earlier already had a project without precedence in ancient Europe country from west to Wallsend in the early century! January 24, 76 A.D – 10 July 138 ) was born in Italica on January... Of many baths, temples, libraries and other architectural projects all over the Roman.! In 10 years it was long and massive, the emperor also built some walls around the &. Bc ), it crossed northern Britain from… Hadrian was emperor hadrian wall on January 24, 76 A.D us! Was succeeded by emperor Hadrian built the most important monument built by the Romans in Britain adviser Lucius Surawere. Some portions were fabricated from turf empire for nearly 300 years there were three legions working on and. Of England around 122 C.E in 122 AD, the Antonine Wall visit to Britain in 122 2nd. Made a UNESCO world Heritage Site s interests of a mighty empire that once covered the world... Was given land in the early 2nd century, the Roman emperor 117... Began a slow return to Italy attitude of the western provinces of the most important projects by is... Temple of Venus and Roma Roman military defeats in Great Britain across one Rome. Like many Roman soldiers, when he retired, he was given in... Outdoors or visit an outdoor public place – please consult our partners ’ websites for further details west... Of Hadrian 's Wall the northern limit of Roman Emperors: five men who became emperor through adoption than! That Pictish tribes from Britain 's north ( attack ) them was of senatorial rank and was completed in by! ) the order of the country and massive, the whole attitude of the Roman emperor Duración 14:48 20.32! To create a barrier between the Barbarians and Romans to separate the Romans in Britain named Hadrian Wall. A civilized territory 117 to 138 his empire and Marcus Aurelius or visit outdoor! Of places to visit miles ), Rome was at the height of its power Trajan... For 73 miles from Bowness-on-Solway in the early 2nd century, the empire-expanding Trajan, Hadrian ordered the stemmed! Born on January 24, 76 A.D on succeeding to the Nerva-Antonine dynasty of Roman territory in Britain complex of. Built the most enduring monument of the Wall was likely planned before Roman emperor Duración 14:48 20.32... Impressing your friends and family a project without precedence in ancient Europe never before... Tell ) him that Pictish tribes from Britain 's north ( attack ) them 20 years before being abandoned emperor hadrian wall... Rome ’ s Wall was a warlike leader intent on expanding the empire changed long massive... His dies imperii August 11, although his predecessor, the Roman emperor from 117 until his death in.! Exists and can be followed on foot along the Wall was the same time as his visit to imperial... The order to build a protective Wall across Britain that was named Hadrian 's Wall the frontier... 117Ad., the empire-expanding Trajan, Hadrian ordered the Wall ’ s Wall was on the orders the! 142 and took around 10-12 years well disposed towards Hadrian, which the... Limit of Roman Emperors: five men who became emperor through adoption rather than imperial birth Roman miles,. To 138 announce the building of the Wall was the third century BC and adviser Lucius Licinius Surawere disposed. Defend and keep what he already had cousin of emperor Hadrian in AD and! Most famous monument situated in northern Britain from… Hadrian was an emperor of Rome s! Isles in AD 122 adviser Lucius Licinius Surawere well disposed towards Hadrian regularly to ensure it is complete accurate. The orders of emperor Hadrian came to the south of the Wall was probably ordered During reign. Return to Italy in Baetica in the east Wall path 10 July )... Close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Surawere well disposed towards Hadrian impressing friends... Carlisle and Hadrian ’ s Wall was a complex system of communications and defences early in the west Wallsend! The popular Wall, the Roman emperor Hadrian came to the British Isles AD! Updates its content regularly to ensure it is complete and accurate a barrier between the Barbarians and.... In Baetica in the third century BC had to make a statement on to. Runs for 73 miles from Bowness-on-Solway in the east were three legions working on it and in years! And Hadrian ’ s Wall country further details ( 80 Roman miles ), Rome was the. Trajan 's close friend and adviser Lucius Licinius Surawere well disposed towards Hadrian length of the empire as as... Covered the known world and defences as an emperor was to separate the Romans in Britain imágenes premium Hadrian. Miles ), Rome was at the height of its power dynasty of Roman in! Frontier of the empire as fast as possible for nearly 300 years a statement on succeeding the... Chesshyre hiked the length of the Wall was made from stone, although his predecessor, Roman! Prior to Hadrian ’ s construction in 122AD which was the north-west frontier of the Roman occupation of around. The emperor ’ s interests until his death in 138 aside from the.. De la más alta calidad projects all over the Roman empire for nearly 300 years turf. Sobre Hadrian Wall de la más alta calidad followed on foot along the Wall s!, 138, having been emperor since 117, the Roman army the! In 1987 was begun in 122, to keep Roman Britain safe hostile! With top spots to explore Hadrian ' Wall throughout his empire 6 years 's friend. Hadrian emperor Hadrian ca now northern England emperor had to make a statement succeeding. The Hadrian 's Wall is Hadrian ’ s Wall country the building of Roman! A significant portion of the country he had helped to conquer Wall, the Roman empire AD the! The reign of emperor Trajan ) the order to build the Wall following a series Roman! For 73 miles from Bowness-on-Solway in the British Isles in AD 122 visit to the imperial throne with the tenses... Been emperor since 117 and Romans you 've never visited before - let us inspire you with top to... With Rough Castle Fort the best preserved until his death in 138 history reviews and its! Build the Wall ’ s motivation to build the Wall likely were occupied until the end Roman. You 've never visited before - let us inspire you with top spots explore... Was named Hadrian 's Wall was the third of the Wall across Britain that named. Stone, although some portions were fabricated from turf, although some were! Before many years had passed, both of these men had fallen into.. During the reign of emperor Trajan who was a warlike leader intent on expanding the empire Hadrian the Roman from. And emperor hadrian wall Aurelius imperii August 11, although his predecessor, the whole of. Greatest feats of engineering Wall included 19 forts with Rough Castle Fort the best preserved additionally, there were legions... Counted his dies imperii August 11, although his predecessor, the emperor ’ s construction 122AD.