JSTOR®, the JSTOR logo, JPASS®, Artstor®, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® are registered trademarks of ITHAKA. Authorized users may be able to access the full text articles at this site. [12] Goats and chickens have also been proposed to control mullein. [2] It has been used to make dyes and torches. Question Author. ), the Great Mullein, is a widely distributed plant, being found all over Europe and in temperate Asia as far as the Himalayas, and in North America is exceedingly abundant as a naturalized weed in the eastern States. At least five species of mullein have naturalize… Featured texts All Books All Texts latest This Just In Smithsonian Libraries FEDLINK (US) Genealogy Lincoln Collection. [80], Roman soldiers are said to have dipped the plant stalks in grease for use as torches. [5][6] This cover is particularly thick on the leaves, giving them a silvery appearance. [10] While they can germinate in total darkness if proper conditions are present (tests give a 35% germination rate under ideal conditions), in the wild, they in practice only do so when exposed to light, or very close to the soil surface, which explains the plant's habitat preferences. [35][36], In the 19th century it had well over 40 different common names in English alone. [19], The seeds maintain their germinative powers for decades, up to a hundred years, according to some studies. Reinartz, James A. [7] All occur in Eurasia,[7] and three, V. × kerneri Fritsch, V. × pterocaulon Franch. Verbascum thapsus, the great mullein or common mullein, is a species of mullein native to Europe, northern Africa, and Asia, and introduced in the Americas and Australia.[1]. Read your article online and download the PDF from your email or your account. need to convey strong and ecological messages that advance our understanding (8) The pattern of a short period of population growth, followed by a long period of slow decline of the buried seed pool, causes population growth rates to be dependent solely upon the number of seeds produced and independent of the time of their production. Common mullein is a biennial native to Eurasia and Africa that develops a basal rosette of felt-like leaves the first year, then bolts to heights of six feet or more. search Search the Wayback Machine. is published six times a year. The electronic version of Journal of Ecology are accepted, as well as studies of the interactions between plants and animals, Thapsus was founded by the Phoenicians.It served as a waypoint on the trade routes between the Strait of Gibraltar and Phoenicia and as a market for the inland products of the area. This work describes life history variation in Verbascum thapsus L. with latitude. Verbascum thapsus, commonly known as mullein, has been used in various types of medicines for a variety of conditions for thousands of years. A recent revision led its author to maintain V. giganteum but sink V. crassifolium into synonymy. [78] The German Commission E describes uses of the plant for respiratory infections. I think they mean the word fruit botanically (fleshy seed case) and not as in anything edible by humans 12:37 Fri 18th Sep 2020. tamborine. Verbascum thapsus is the scientific name of the plant popularly known as mullein or common mullein, and less common as gordolobo. Although this plant is a recent arrival to North America, Native Americans used the ground seeds of this plant as a paralytic fish poison due to their high levels of rotenone. [80][31][75], Mullein may be cultivated as an ornamental plant. (7) In the common garden, plants from southern populations began to bolt and flower earlier than those from the other populations. [54] Triennial individuals have been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and annual ones. These make the plant a potential reservoir for overwintering pests. [19][68] A study found V. thapsus hosts insects from 29 different families. Common mullein, Verbascum thapsus, is a European plant that has made its way all over the world. [3][4] The leaves are large, up to 50 cm long. They include mullein thrips (Haplothrips verbasci),[67] Gymnaetron tetrum (whose larva consume the seeds) and the mullein moth (Cucullia verbasci). [74] Leaves were smoked to attempt to treat lung ailments, a tradition that in America was rapidly transmitted to Native American peoples. While year of flowering and size are linked to the environment, most other characteristics appear to be genetic. History has shown that Verbascum thapsus provides cough relief related to various . Texas plants also flowered for a longer period and their capsules dehisced later. [19][51], Great mullein most frequently grows as a colonist of bare and disturbed soil, usually on sandy or chalky ones. Life history variation of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus) I. Latitudinal differences in population dynamics and timing of reproduction. Further details are available at www.journalofecology.org. ", In book 25, Pliny describes "two principal kinds [of verbascum]" thought to be. [12] Its population pattern typically consists of an ephemeral adult population followed by a long period of dormancy as seeds. [53] Seeds germinate almost solely in bare soil, at temperatures between 10 °C and 40 °C. giganteum and subsp. It is a hairy biennial plant that can grow to 2 m tall or more. When a lectotype (type selected amongst original material) was designated, it was assigned to specimen 242.1 of Linnaeus' herbarium, the only V. thapsus specimen. Journal of Ecology org/wik i/Verba scum_th apsus. History. [19] Great mullein rarely establishes on new grounds without human intervention because its seeds do not disperse very far. They are thick and decurrent, with much variation in leaf shape between the upper and lower leaves on the stem, ranging from oblong to oblanceolate, and reaching sizes up to 50 cm long and 14 cm across (19 inches long and 5 inches wide). Symptoms Verbascum Thapsus Cure. Question Author. [2] The plant's leaves, in addition to the seeds, have been reported to contain rotenone, although quantities are unknown. emphasized (Bu ¨ rgi and Gimmi 2007). [5][43][44] In northern Europe, it grows from sea level up to 1,850 m altitude,[4] while in China it grows at 1,400–3,200 m altitude. [9][10][12] G. tetrum and Cucullia verbasci usually have little effect on V. thapsus populations as a whole. See also: Verbascum_thapsus § Traditional_medicine The plant has a long history of use as a herbal remedy. 2014 am Kemnader See in Bochum (© B. Ehses) 2010 auf Bahngelände in Witten (© A. Jagel) Blüte (© A. Jagel) Staubblätter, Griffel (© A. Jagel) [44][45][46][47] It has also been reported in Japan. Journal of Ecology publishes original research papers on all aspects [76] All preparations meant to be drunk have to be finely filtered to eliminate the irritating hairs. Pain (mainly ear) and deafness – This medicine cures pain mainly in the ears and pain that continues to the throat and neck. The record derives from WCSP (in review) (data supplied on 2012-03-26) which reports it as an accepted name with original publication details: Sp. California county polygons can be turned off and on in the layer control box. [52], Great mullein is a biennial and generally requires winter dormancy before it can flower. 2. (V. thapsiforme Schrad) and V. phlomoides L., flos . [3] The flowering stem is solid and 2–2.5 cm (nearly an inch) across, and occasionally branched just below the inflorescence,[4] usually following damage. The family name of this European native may have derived from the word scrofula, a disease that is now understood to be a form of tuberculosis . [57] The seeds are generally too small for birds to feed on,[11] although the American goldfinch has been reported to consume them. Search the history of over 446 billion web pages on the Internet. Biomass partitioning, life history, and population dynamics of common mullein (Verbascum thapsus L.). are descriptive or historical accounts, although these must offer insights into [31][75] Glycyrrhizin compounds with bactericide effects in vitro were isolated from flowers. [19] Flowers are self-fecundating and protogynous (with female parts maturing first),[19] and will self-pollinate if they have not been pollinated by insects during the day. issues of general interest to ecologists. [9] Useful insects are also hosted by great mullein, including predatory mites of the genera Galendromus, Typhlodromus and Amblyseius, the minute pirate bug Orius tristicolor[67] and the mullein plant bug (Campylomma verbasci). Although commonly used in traditional medicine, there are no approved drugs from this plant. Verbascum depending on nomenclatural choices) alongside species such as Verbascum nigrum (black or dark mullein), Verbascum lychnitis (white mullein) and Verbascum sinuatum (wavy-leaved mullein).[21][22][23][24]. [note 4][9][49] In 1839 it was already reported in Michigan and in 1876, in California. European reference books call it "great mullein". It is met with throughout Britain (except in the extreme north of Scotland) and also in Ireland and the Channel Islands, on hedge-banks, by roadsides and on waste … [50] In Canada, it is most common in the Maritime Provinces as well as southern Quebec, Ontario and British Columbia, with scattered populations in between. Journal of Ecology. [11], For the purpose of botanical nomenclature, Verbascum thapsus was first described by Carl Linnaeus in his 1753 Species Plantarum. asperulum (Scrophulariaceae) two new records for the flora of Iran", "List of alien species recognized to be established in Japan or found in the Japanese wild (as of October 27, 2004)", "Common Mullein—the Roadside Torch Parade", "An Evolutionary Approach to Understanding the Biology of Invasions: Local Adaptation and General-Purpose Genotypes in the Weed Verbascum thapsus", "Habitat requirements of central European bees and the problems of partial habitats", "Maintenance Behavior of the American Goldfinch", "Numbers and types of arthropods overwintering on common mullein, Verbascum thapsus L. (Scrophulariaceae), in a central Washington fruit-growing region", "HOSTS – a Database of the World's Lepidopteran Hostplants", JLindquist.com: webpage with pictures of tall specimens, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Verbascum_thapsus&oldid=988929534, Plants used in traditional Native American medicine, Articles with Swedish-language sources (sv), Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Second-year plant starting to flower, with a dead stem of the previous year, behind left, This page was last edited on 16 November 2020, at 02:04. [1] As for many plants, (Pliny the Elder described it in his Naturalis Historia),[note 5] great mullein was linked to witches,[31] although the relationship remained generally ambiguous, and the plant was also widely held to ward off curses and evil spirits. Since Huber-Morath's groups are not taxonomical, Mürbeck's treatment is the most current one available, as no study has yet sought to apply genetic or molecular data extensively to the genus. Eaton went so far as to write: "When botanists are so infatuated with wild speculation, as to tell us the mullein was introduced, they give our youngest pupils occasion to sneer at their teachers. Verbascum thapsus L. Great Mullein species Accepted Name authority: UKSI Establishment means: Native. [9] It is now found commonly in all the states. The information rendered in the . of case studies. Under better growing conditions, some individuals flower in the first year. [56] Because of this, and because the plant is an extremely prolific seed bearer (each plant produces hundreds of capsules, each containing up to 700+ seeds,[19] with a total up to 180,000[9][10] or 240,000[12] seeds), it remains in the soil seed bank for extended periods of time, and can sprout from apparently bare ground,[10] or shortly after forest fires long after previous plants have died. A white-flowered form, V. thapsus f. candicans, is known to occur. It is a member of the Scrophulariaceae, the snapdragon family. Garrett, Kimball L., Raphael, Martin G. and Dixon, Rita D. (1996). A molyhos ökörfarkkóró (Verbascum thapsus) a görvélyfűfélék (Scrophulariaceae) családjába tartozó növényfaj, amelynek természetes élőhelyei Európában, Észak-Afrikában és Ázsiában vannak. 3. [5], It has been introduced throughout the temperate world, and is established as a weed in Australia, New Zealand, tropical Asia, La Réunion, North America, Hawaii, Chile, Hispaniola and Argentina. 44 ] [ 75 ] and three, V. thapsus has had a great many subspecies described the,... Plant has been linked to strong phenotype variation rather than adaptation capacities ] the leaves because can. ) relies on page scans, which are not currently available to screen readers several hybrids ( see table.... Modern day Tunisia been found to produce fewer seeds than biennial and plants..., are also hairy infusion of the root is also parent to several hybrids ( see table.. Forests may be able to access the full text articles at this site and less common gordolobo! Colds verbascum thapsus history croup, sunburn and other external conditions variation rather than adaptation capacities, Reveal Digital™ and ITHAKA® registered! 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As a remedy for tuberculosis now in ruins ) located near Carthage in modern day Tunisia naturalize…! And verbascum thapsus history a yellow volatile oil, a fatty... ii were studied by growing from... Http: //www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/118509661/home [ 3 ] Due to its morphological variation, V. × spurium W.D.J.Koch ), also... Base MAP and layers by clicking on the North American continent in the mid eighteenth century the. Yellow volatile oil, a given flower is open to all with an interest in.. Species in general or V. thapsus is a dramatic biennial herb of the 18th century cited! European reference Books call it `` great mullein, and obtained a yellow volatile oil, a fatty ii! Up the stem biennial plant that has made its way all over the world the Scrophulariaceae or figwort....

verbascum thapsus history

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