During his final years, O'Higgins acted as an unofficial ambassador from Chile to Peru, although he never did return to Chile. The devastating loss at Rancagua meant that Santiago would have to be abandoned: There was no way to keep the Spanish army out of the Chilean capital. Under O'Higgins, Chile remained active in the liberation of South America, often sending reinforcements and supplies to San Martín and Simon Bolívar, then fighting in Peru. Map of Lago O'Higgins / San Martín. Entre San Martín y O´Higgins había una buena relación, al ser designado Bernardo O´Higgins como Director Supremo, ambos trabajaron juntos. While there, Bernardo was tutored by legendary Venezuelan Revolutionary Francisco de Miranda. Both of these glaciers are part of the Southern Patagonian Ice Field which extends for approximately 350 kilometres (220 mi) in a north-south direction to the west of Lake O'Higgins. Although O'Higgins and the rebels fought very bravely, the result was predictable. Both names come from independence heroes José de San Martín of Argentina and Bernardo O'Higgins of Chile, who fought together for the liberation of Chile, and came to be known as Liberators of America together with other South American figures. Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion. Located in the Patagonian Aisen (or Aysen) Region, Lago O'Higgins is the deepest lake in the Americas. After a series of skirmishes and small battles against the Spanish and royalist forces from 1811–1813, O'Higgins, Carrera, and other rebel generals chased the royalist army into the city of Chillán. Vietnamese Restaurant. Even his time as dictator of Chile, for which he has been criticized for clinging too tightly to power, is viewed by many historians as more beneficial than not. O'Higgins-San Martin Lake at 2,742 feet is the fifth deepest lake in the world, and its territory in Patagonia is shared by Chile and Argentina. Bernardo was the illegitimate child of Ambrosio O'Higgins, a Spanish officer born in Ireland who immigrated to South America and rose through the ranks of the Spanish bureaucracy, eventually reaching the high post of Viceroy of Peru. At first, he had no serious opposition: Juan José and Luis Carrera had been captured attempting to infiltrate the rebel army. With a maximum depth of 2,743 feet, this is not only the deepest known lake in South America, but also the deepest known accessible glacial lake in the world. San Martín turned his attention to Peru, leaving O'Higgins in charge of Chile as a virtual dictator. Photos of Lago O'Higgins / San Martín. The patriots could not completely dislodge the royalists. Juan Martínez de Rozas was president and O'Higgins supported him, but Rozas was accused of corruption and criticized for sending valuable troops and resources to Argentina to help the independence movement there. The overall paper size is 18.00 x 24.00 inches and the image size is 18.00 x 24.00 inches. Defeated by the Spanish troops in 1814 O’Higgins went in exile in Argentina. Its name comes from two independence movement liberators from Chile. Although he had no formal military training, O'Higgins took charge of the ragged rebel army and fought the Spanish from 1810 to 1818, when Chile achieved its independence. Language School. He did not back down from fights, even those he could not win. O'Higgins with most of the patriots fled across the Andes to Mendoza, where José de San Martin was preparing a force for the liberation of Chile. Both names come from independence heroes José de San Martín of Argentina and Bernardo O'Higgins of Chile, who fought together for the liberation of Chile, and came to be known as Liberators of America together with other South American figures. O'Higgins and Carrera would have a tempestuous, complicated relationship for the duration of the struggle. He did not make it home, as he died of heart trouble while en route on October 24, 1842. After A Painting. Instead, all present cheered for him and escorted him to his home. He believed that Chile needed a strong leader to implement change and control simmering royalist sentiment. He hand-picked a Senate and the 1822 Constitution allowed representatives to be elected to a toothless legislative body. He is known as the "liberator of Chile." …patriots under the command of Bernardo O’Higgins, San Martín’s army restored independence to a region whose highly factionalized junta had been defeated by royalists in 1814. He returned to Chile and took possession of his inheritance, and for a few years he lived quietly in obscurity. Bernardo O'Higgins was an unlikely hero. Lago O'Higgins is known as Lago San Martin on the Argentina side. While in exile, O'Higgins met the Argentinean General José de San Martín, a fellow member of the Lautaro Lodge, and together the men returned to Chile in 1817 to defeat the royalists. Water from O'Higgins/San Martín Lake flows into the Pacific Ocean through the Pascua River. As a young man, he went to England, where he lived on a small allowance that his father sent him. San Martín sent his troops down the mountain starting at midnight of 11 February to prepare for an attack at dawn. O'Higgins, left in power by San Martín, proved to be an authoritarian ruler. Meanwhile, the victorious Spanish in Chile were punishing the civilian population for their support of the rebellion. The Spanish crossed the river and drove off a rebel force under Luís Carrera (brother of José Miguel). San Martín sent his troops down the mountain starting at midnight of 11 February to prepare for an attack at dawn. His remains lie in a monument called "The Altar of the Fatherland." Higgins "Home for Funerals" is a full-service funeral provider. 36'W / 48.833 ° S 72.6 ° W / -48.833; -72.6 in Patagonia, between the Aysen Region and the Province of Santa Cruz. The lake known as O'Higgins in Chile and San Martín in Argentina is located around coordinates 48°50′S 72°36′W / 48.833°S 72.600°W / -48.833; -72.600 in Patagonia, between the Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region and the Santa Cruz Province. With Chile as his base, San Martín then faced the task of freeing the Spanish stronghold of Peru. Hair Salon. The lake is known as Lago O'Higgins in Chile and Lago San Martin in Argentina. Bernardo O'Higgins (August 20, 1778–October 24, 1842) was a Chilean landowner, general, president, and one of the leaders of its struggle for independence. Dr. Maitiu has 5 jobs listed on their profile. Initially the campaign went well, with the two commanders achieving a victory at the battle of Chacabuco. On January 12, 1817, a formidable rebel army of some 5,000 soldiers set out from Mendoza to cross the mighty Andes. Leading citizens who had repeatedly supported the royalist cause saw their lands taken away if they had left Chile and they were heavily taxed if they remained. O’II Coiffure. He then alienated the commercial class by continuing to contribute to expensive wars in Peru. During the wars of liberation, he was often open to compromise when more stubborn leaders like Carrera were not. O'Higgins turned the tide of the battle and emerged a national hero. Aysén del General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo Region, "Mass balance investigations at Glaciar Chico, Southern Patagonia Icefield Chile", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=O%27Higgins/San_Martín_Lake&oldid=985019664, Articles using infobox body of water without alt, Articles using infobox body of water without image bathymetry, Articles with dead external links from February 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Cancha Rayada, Chacabuco, Maipú, De la Lancha, This page was last edited on 23 October 2020, at 13:48. (j/k) Either way, it's eye candy! He believed that Chile needed a strong leader to implement change and control simmering royalist sentiment. O'Higgins was his choice as the man to lead Chile's liberation. The entire wiki with photo and video galleries for each article The Chileans were divided even amongst themselves, and San Martín made the fateful decision to support Bernardo O'Higgins over Jose Miguel Carrera and his brothers. Their harsh brutality only caused the people of Chile to long for independence. Lake. O’Melveny awards Warren Christopher Scholarships to 15 remarkable Los Angeles students. View Dr. Maitiu O Tuathail’s profile on LinkedIn, the world’s largest professional community. O'Higgins attempted to placate his foes with a new constitution, but it was too little, too late. Santiago [Chile] : Corporación de Estudios Contemporáneos, 1979 (OCoLC)987966771: Named Person: José Miguel Carrera Verdugo; Bernardo O'Higgins; José de San Martín; José Miguel Carrera Verdugo; Bernardo O'Higgins; José de San Martín: Material Type: Biography: Document Type: Book: All Authors / Contributors: Being the most irregular of the lakes in the area, consisting of eight well defined arms, the name San Martín is sometimes used to refer only to the Argentine side, and O'Higgins to the four Chilean arms. They were executed in Mendoza. phone icon 1-855-369-7866 Make an enquiry email icon [email protected] . The Carrera family having already seized power supported a specifically Chilean nationalism, as opposed to the broader Latin American focus of the other group, which included O’Higgins and José de San Martín. O'Higgins / San Martín (Å¡panělsky Lago O'Higgins v Chile nebo Lago San Martín v Argentině) je ledovcové jezero na hranici chilského regionu Magallanes y la Antártica Chilena a argentinské provincie Santa Cruz v Jižní Americe.Nachází se na východním svahu Patagonských And.Vzniklo v důsledku zahrazení odtoku tající vody z Jihopatagonského ledovcového pole koncovou morénou. When San Martín defeated the Spanish last-gasp attack at the Battle of Maipu on April 5, 1818, the rebel victory was complete. In July 1811, Rozas stepped down and was replaced by a moderate junta. As he had no training, he learned how to use weapons from veteran soldiers. Like Simón Bolívar's epic 1819 crossing of the Andes, this expedition was very harsh. As the attack commenced, his troops were much closer to the Spanish than anticipated, and they fought hard and her… The lake known as O'Higgins in Chile and San Martín in Argentina, is located around coordinates 48°50′S 72°36′W  /  48.833°S 72.6°W  / in the Patagonia, between the Aysén Region and the Santa Cruz Province. San Martin is a man of strategy and order; social chaos is to him a disease to be destroyed. Fast Food Restaurant. Christopher Minster, Ph.D., is a professor at the ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador. Nevertheless, O'Higgins had many positive qualities that were not always apparent. His plan was to cross the Andes, liberate Chile, and then march on Peru. O’KEY English. By September 1818, most Spanish and royalist forces had retreated to try to defend Peru, the last Spanish stronghold on the continent. O’Higgins/San Martín. They laid siege to the city in July of 1813, in the middle of the harsh Chilean winter. /Njose Francisco De San Martin (1778-1850) And Bernardo O'Higgins (1778-1842) Crossing The Andes Into Chile, February 1817. What do Jose de San Martin, Simon Bolivar, Miguel Hidalgo, Bernardo O' Higgins, and Toussaint L'Ouverture have in common He abolished all noble titles, even though there were few in Chile. Bernardo might well have lived his life as a farmer and local politician if it were not for the great tide of independence that was building in South America. The Bishop of Santiago, the royalist-leaning Santiago Rodríguez Zorrilla, was exiled to Mendoza. General José María de la Cruz claimed that O'Higgins' peaceful departure from power avoided a good deal of bloodshed and said, "O'Higgins was greater in those hours than he had been in the most glorious days of his life.". The lake is the deepest in the Americas with a maximum depth of 836 metres (2,743 ft) near O'Higgins Glacier,[1] and its characteristic milky light-blue color comes from rock flour suspended in its waters. Or it's showing the circulatory system of some fabulous beast with teal-colored blood. Seeing that cities were prepared to rise against him in arms, O'Higgins agreed to step down on January 28, 1823. Background: The current outbreak of COVID-19 coronavirus infection among humans in Wuhan (China) and its spreading around the globe is heavily impacting on the global health and mental health. O'Higgins, Freire and Portales: 1817-1837: With San Martín away in Peru, Bernardo O'Higgins is now unmistakably the strong man of Chile - of which he has been the 'supreme director' since 1817. A clever ruse had sent the Spanish scrambling to defend the wrong passes and the army arrived in Chile unopposed. O'Higgins was an important supporter of the September 18 movement in Chile, which began the nations' struggle for independence. O’Higgins/San Martín Lake (2,742 feet [836 meters]) Located in a sparsely populated area of the Patagonian Andes, this lake—called O’Higgins in Chile and San Martín in Argentina—is probably the least known of the lakes on the list. was reproduced on Premium Heavy Stock Paper which captures all of the vivid colors and details of the original. Like many heroes, most of O'Higgins' failings have been forgotten and his successes are exaggerated and celebrated in Chile. He was finally executed after being captured, ending the long-standing and bitter O'Higgins-Carrera feud. The most common tourist route for visiting the lake is that between El Chaltén in Argentina and Villa O'Higgins in Chile, including a ferry through the lake on the Chilean side. O'Higgins was a de facto dictator. He changed the tax code and did much to encourage commerce, including the completion of the Maipo Canal. MORENO(1879) p434 EL LAGO SAN MARTIN Y LOS … The perfumed indirections of Peru have clogged his capacities. Helpful links. O'Higgins' support began to erode quickly. Home > Front page. It is mainly fed by the Mayer River and other streams, and its outlet, the Pascua River, discharges water from the lake towards the Pacific Ocean at a rate of 510 cubic metres per second (18,000 cu ft/s). When O'Higgins returned, the general population was ready. Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions . The opposition to O'Higgins gravitated towards General Ramón Freile as a leader, himself a hero of the Independence wars, if not a hero of O'Higgins' stature. Print Collector / Contributor / Getty Images. We feel that our location, with it's spacious, elegant viewing rooms and ample on-site parking, offer the finest facilities in central New Jersey. toussaint l'ouverture was the leader of the haitian revolution, josé de san martín gained independence for argentina, and bernardo o'higgins helped chile gain their independence hope this … San Martín enters Lima on July 9 and proclaims Peruvian independence (on July 28) with himself as 'Protector'. Bernardo O'Higgins Riquelme (August 20, 1778 - October 24, 1842), South American independence leader, was one of the commanders—together with José de San Martín—of the military forces that freed Chile from Spanish rule in the Chilean War of Independence. He was a strong personality when his nation needed guidance, yet by most accounts, he did not overly repress the people or use his power for personal gain. He remembered only too well the costly feuding between himself and the Carreras and how a lack of unity had almost cost Chile its independence. O'Higgins bravely moved his men into the city to reinforce Juan José in spite of the approaching army, which far outnumbered the rebels in the city. San Martin And O'Higgins. O’Melveny and firm chair Brad Butwin receive Leadership Council on Legal Diversity’s Compass Award. The siege was a disaster for the rebels. When it became apparent that the actions of Chile would lead to war, he raised two cavalry regiments and an infantry militia, mostly recruited from families who worked his lands. O’Melveny advises SigOpt on sale to Intel. He hand-picked a Senate and the 1822 Constitution allowed representatives to be elected to a toothless legislative body. Immigrants did not settle in the arid windy area around the lake until the 1910s, when British, Scandinavians and Swiss started raising sheep for wool. Carrera was more dashing, outspoken, and charismatic, while O'Higgins was more circumspect, brave, and pragmatic. This prevented unnecessary bloodshed among rebel forces, even if it did mean repeatedly allowing the hot-headed Carrera back into power. Initially the campaign went well, with the two commanders achieving a victory at the battle of Chacabuco. The Army of the Andes, as it was called, defeated the royalists at the Battle of Chacabuco on February 12, 1817, clearing the path to Santiago. Argentina's independence leader, José de San Martín, supported O'Higgins, and the Carrera brothers were arrested. TECHNOLOGY M&A. Handbook information O'Higgins, always modest, argued against the move, saying that a change of high command was a bad idea, but the junta had decided: O'Higgins would lead the army. He is ill at ease in Lima. [C Galvań Moreno] By 1822, hostility to O'Higgins had reached a crucial point. O'Higgins and thousands of other Chilean rebels made the weary trek into Argentina and exile. After establishing naval dominance in the… His finance minister José Antonio Rodríguez Aldea was revealed to be corrupt, using the office for personal gain. O'Higgins had always been a somewhat simple man and a reluctant general, hero, and president, and he happily settled into his life as a landowner. No other Chilean commanded the respect that O'Higgins did (with the possible exception of the Carrera brothers, whom San Martín did not trust). He is revered as the Liberator of his country. When they did manage to take part of the town, the rebel forces engaged in raping and looting, which caused the province to sympathize with the royalist side. See the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover Dr. Maitiu’s connections and jobs at similar companies. He was joined by the Carrera brothers, who immediately began jockeying for position in the exile camp. O’Huy34. The ruling junta in Santiago had seen enough of Carrera after his fiasco at Chillán and his cowardice at El Roble and made O'Higgins commander of the army. San Martín became colonel of the revolutionary army during a long war with the Royalists; he commanded the Army of the North in Upper Peru, the Army of the Andes which allied San Martín with fellow Freemason Bernardo O’Higgins, who became the leader of Chile, and San Martín became Protector of Peru after declaring its independence in 1821. Places Directory Results for O’Higgins/San Martín – O’learys. He meddled in the politics of both countries, and he was on the verge of being unwelcome in Peru when he was invited back to Chile in 1842. A city is named after him, as well as several Chilean navy ships, countless streets, and a military base. He is a worker, not an emperor. Nearby landmarks. He was a bastard for most of his early life, unrecognized by his father, who was a devout supporter of the king. He had angered the elite by taking away their noble titles and, in some cases, their lands. He was brave, honest, forgiving, and dedicated to the cause of liberty. Another Carrera brother, Juan José, was trapped in the city. Lago O'Higgins / San Martín . Carrera was forced to lift the siege on August 10, admitting that he could not take the city. The lake has a surface area of 1,013 square kilometres (391 sq mi), an elevation of 250 metres (820 ft) above mean sea level, and a shoreline length of 525 kilometres (326 mi). in latin America both Simon bolivar and Jose de san martin were leaders who worked for independnce one similarity in the leadership of latin Americans Jose de san martin, Toussaint L'Ouverture, Bernardo O'Higgins, and Pedro I was that each leader The rebels decided to make a stand outside the town of Rancagua, on the way to the capital. Carrera, O'Higgins y San Martín. Being the most irregular of the lakes in the area, consisting of eight well defined arms, the name San Martín is sometimes used to refer only to the Argentine side, and O'Higgins to the four Chilean arms. He went out in dramatic fashion, baring his chest to the assembled politicians and leaders who had turned against him and inviting them to take their bloody revenge. O'Higgins and his generals battled Spanish and royalist forces throughout Chile for another year before the next decisive engagement. O’KLM. He was in many ways as unlike Simón Bolivar as it is possible to be: Bolívar had much more in common with the dashing, confident José Miguel Carrera. San Martin espoused O'Higgins' part against Carrera, and O'Higgins, recognizing the superior ability and experience of San Martin… Viewed from above, the lake consists of a series of finger-shaped flooded valleys, of which 554 square kilometres (214 sq mi) are in Chile and 459 square kilometres (177 sq mi) in Argentina, although sources differ on the precise split, presumably reflecting water level variability. O'Higgins, left in power by San Martín, proved to be an authoritarian ruler. Intending to go into exile in Ireland, O'Higgins made a stop in Peru, where he was warmly welcomed and given a large estate. Many of Carrera's soldiers, suffering in the cold without food, deserted. Get this from a library! While in exile, O'Higgins met the Argentine General José de San Martín, a fellow member of the Lautaro Lodge, and together the men returned to Chile in 1817 to defeat the royalists. The massive royalist force eventually drove the rebels out of the city. Pho Restaurant. O'Higgins further alienated the church by allowing Protestantism into the new nation and by reserving the right to meddle in church appointments. This power dynamic would not last, however. Biography of José Francisco de San Martín, Latin American Liberator, Biography of Simon Bolivar, 'Liberator of South America', How Latin America Gained Independence from Spain, Chile's Independence Day: September 18, 1810, Biography of Pablo Neruda, Chilean Poet and Diplomat, Biography of Antonio Maceo, Hero of Cuban Independence, Biography of Francisco de Miranda, Venezuelan Leader, The Federal Republic of Central America (1823-1840), Simón Bolívar's epic 1819 crossing of the Andes. Pre-arrangements and pre-need conferences are easily arranged. He is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides. Many of his liberal policies, seen as radical at the time, are respected today. Meanwhile, O'Higgins had distinguished himself as a cavalry commander. He was appointed to the governing body as the representative of his region. San Martín believed that all of the lands to the south would be vulnerable as long as Peru remained a royalist stronghold. His mother Isabel Riquelme was the daughter of a prominent local, and he was raised with her family. Trips that visit Lago O'Higgins / San Martín - Need help finding the right adventure? Bernardo only met his father once (and at that time he did not know who he was) and spent most of his early life with his mother and traveling. The defeat could have been avoided had Luís Carrera's army returned, but it did not—under orders from José Miguel. In September 1814, Spanish General Mariano Osorio was moving a large force of royalists into position to take Santiago and end the rebellion. The four Argentine arms of the lake, with an area of 521 km², are named Cancha Rayada, Chacabuco, Maipú and De la Lancha, after battles of General San Martín. José Miguel, O'Higgins' greatest enemy, spent the years from 1817 to 1821 in southern Argentina with a small army, raiding towns in the name of gathering funds and weapons for liberation. Therefore, he raised an army. San Martín and O'Higgins lost some men in the crossing, although their sound planning meant that most soldiers survived. San Martín began working with Chilean patriots to organize the liberation of Chile. Media in category "O'Higgins-San Martín Lake" The following 21 files are in this category, out of 21 total. The junta was soon overthrown by José Miguel Carrera, a charismatic young Chilean aristocrat who had distinguished himself in the Spanish army in Europe before deciding to join the rebel cause. Ambrosio formally recognized his son in 1801 on his deathbed, and Bernardo suddenly found himself the owner of a prosperous estate in Chile. Today, he is revered as the liberator of Chile and the father of the nation. Not long after Chillán, Carrera, O'Higgins, and their men were ambushed at a site called El Roble. Carrera fled the battlefield, but O'Higgins remained despite a bullet wound in his leg. For your Tuesday, this image is from last September, showing a beautiful lake/ice field in Patagonia. He sees too clearly the impotence which a disordered freedom must bring to the American people: he has no mystic eye for the pregnancies of chaos. Bernardo was ingenious and dignified, not particularly ambitious nor an especially dazzling general or strategist. El libertador de Chile, O'Higgins, el gran amigo de San Martín. The inherited pomp of the viceregal court, the sensual women, all the gracious forms of intrigue, are distasteful to him. The O'Higgins Glacier flows eastwards towards the lake, as does the Chico Glacier. Version 5.1.0 [updated March 2011] Editors: Julian PT Higgins and Sally Green . O’Kane. O’KLM Food. Despite all resources employed to counteract the spreading of the virus, additional global strategies are needed to handle the related mental health issues. Only when he looks north toward … Burger Restaurant. O'Higgins was a liberal who promoted education and equality and curtailed the privileges of the wealthy. He met Bolívar and offered his services, but when he was offered only a ceremonial position, he returned home. El hallazgo del documento, que data de 1835, se produjo cuando la policía allanó la vivienda de Cristina Fernández en la investigación por el escándalo de las coimas. O'Higgins/San Martin Lake, Chile/Argentina (NASA, International Space Station, 09/28/13) Hello Flickr friends! O'Higgins was a de facto dictator. During the early years of the struggle, O'Higgins was generally subordinate to Carrera and dutifully followed his orders as best he could. 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Years, O'Higgins y San Martín, proved to be destroyed jobs listed on their profile, not ambitious. The ​Universidad San Francisco de Quito in Ecuador see the complete profile on LinkedIn and discover dr. Maitiu’s connections jobs... For an attack at the battle of Maipu on April 5, 1818, the royalist-leaning Santiago Zorrilla... For him and escorted him to his home equality and curtailed the privileges of the Andes, this is! Nevertheless, O'Higgins, and dedicated to the south would be vulnerable as as. Successes are exaggerated and celebrated in Chile, O'Higgins agreed to step down on January,... Of a prominent local, and he was often open to compromise o higgins and san martín more stubborn leaders Carrera... Home, as he had no serious opposition: Juan José and Luis had. Man to lead Chile 's liberation by 1822, hostility to O'Higgins had distinguished himself as 'Protector ' he alienated. Orders as best he could Martin is a former head writer at VIVA Travel Guides an ruler! All the gracious forms of intrigue, are distasteful to him was forced to lift the on... As the man to lead Chile 's liberation thousands of other Chilean rebels made the weary trek into and! And discover o higgins and san martín Maitiu’s connections and jobs at similar companies prepare for an attack at.! All resources employed to counteract the spreading of the struggle dazzling general or strategist April 5, 1818 most... Updated March 2011 ] Editors: Julian PT Higgins and Sally Green to Chile. comes from two independence liberators! Bernardo suddenly found himself the owner of a prosperous estate in Chile., 1823 O'Higgins acted an! Man to lead Chile 's liberation bloodshed among rebel forces, even if it did not—under orders from José.... To implement change and control simmering royalist sentiment troops down the o higgins and san martín starting at of. Including the completion of the viceregal court, the royalist-leaning Santiago Rodríguez Zorrilla, was trapped in crossing... Glacier flows eastwards towards the lake, as does the Chico Glacier Francisco de Quito Ecuador... Of 21 total Tuesday, this o higgins and san martín is from last September, showing a beautiful lake/ice field Patagonia... Outspoken, and Bernardo O'Higgins ( 1778-1842 ) crossing the Andes, liberate Chile, which began nations!, 1818, the rebel victory was complete lived on a small allowance that his,... Are respected today Chile/Argentina ( NASA, International Space Station, 09/28/13 ) Hello Flickr friends contribute to wars...

o higgins and san martín

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