1. Scott, who was editor when the first “Style-book of the Manchester Guardian” – forerunner of this guide – appeared in 1928, is most famous for … Provides editorial guidelines for text in RISC OS instructional publications, technical documentation, and reference information. Note that eid means festival, so it is tautologous to describe it as the “Eid festival”, Eid al-FitrMuslim festival of thanksgiving laid down in Islamic law, celebrates the end of Ramadan (al-fitr means the breaking of the fast), eid mubaraknot a festival but a greeting (mubarak means “may it be blessed”), Eireno: say Republic of Ireland or Irish Republic. Erythropoietins produced by cell culture are used for treating anaemia resulting from chronic kidney disease and other conditions. Whether youâre looking for a stocking filler for the kids or a blowout present for your partner, weâve got Christmas all wrapped up. expat, expatriatenot ex-pat or expatriot; this is “ex” meaning “out of” (as in export, extract), not “ex-” meaning “former” (as in ex-husband). The Christmas gift guide: 100 great ideas for all budgets Whether you’re looking for a stocking filler for the kids or a blowout present for your partner, we’ve got Christmas all wrapped up. “Trust your editor, and you’ll sleep on straw” (John Cheever), -ee endings-ee means something happens to you; -er means you do something: so employee, invitee (if you must), refugee but attender, escaper, etc, rather than attendee, escapee, etc, eerieweird; Erie North American lake; eyrie of eagles, effectivelyThis adverb is best kept simply to describe how something was done: “Anna managed the department effectively.” Confusion arises when it is used instead of “in effect”, which describes something that has the effect of, even if the effect was unintended or unofficial: “Her boss was off, so in effect Anna was the manager of the department” is clearer than “Her boss was off, so effectively Anna was the manager of the department.”, Sometimes effectively is used in neither of these ways, but just to pad out a sentence in a feeble attempt at adding emphasis, in which case it can be safely deleted, effeteThe traditional meaning is exhausted, spent or worn out, but nowadays you rarely see this word used to mean anything other than effeminate or foppish. Provides … Do not call it a vaccine â it treats, but does not pre-empt, TannoyTM; say public address system or just PA, Tardisthe Doctorâs time machine in Doctor Who; the acronym stands for time and relative dimension in space, Tarmaca company; tarmac formerly used to make pavements, roads and runways (we now walk and drive on asphalt), Tatethe original London gallery in Millbank, now known as Tate Britain, houses British art from the 16th century to the present day; Tate Modern, at Southwark, south London, Tate Liverpool and Tate St Ives, in Cornwall, all house modern art, Tavener, Sir John(1944-2013) English composer of such works as The Protecting Veil, Taverner, John (c1490-1545) English composer of masses and other vocal works, tax avoidanceis legal; tax evasion is illegal, the taxmanavoid in favour of tax department, HMRC or tax collector, TaxPayersâ AllianceâBritainâs independent grassroots campaign for lower taxes,â or as the Guardianâs Michael White puts it: âTory front organisation and purveyor of dodgy statisticsâ, teabag, teacup, teapot, teaspoonall one word, teaching excellence framework (Tef)Likewise, research excellence framework (Ref), teamsSports teams take plural verbs: Wednesday were relegated again, Australia have won by an innings, etc; but note that in a business context, they are singular like other companies, eg Manchester United reported its biggest loss to date, Tea Party movementnamed after the Boston Tea Party protest of 1773, Ted Talksthe abbreviation stands for technology, entertainment, design, teddy boys(1950s) took their name from their Edwardian style of clothing. The font used for The Guardian logo is Guardian Egyptian Text Black, which is a humanist slab serif font designed by Christian Schwartz & Paul Barnes and published by Commercial Type. The style guide covers all Guardian publications, whether online or on newsprint. The most important thing is that, in news reporting, we are not seen â because of the language we use â to be taking sides. GOV.UK style for specific words and phrases, in terms of spelling, hyphenation and capitalisation If thereâs a point of style that is not covered here, check The Guardian . They give extra information, they are preceded by a comma, and they use âwhichâ rather than âthatâ. The proper use of style varies from situation to situation. The same applies to âtook to social mediaâ and similar phrases. Last updated: February 2002 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org. â¦ With 100 brilliant gifts for all ages, interests and budgets, our ultimate 2020 Christmas gift totalAvoid starting court stories with variations on the formula âthree men were jailed for a total of 19 yearsâ, a statistic that conveys no meaningful information (in this case, they had been given sentences of nine, six and four years). 27.9k Likes, 618 Comments - The Guardian (@guardian) on Instagram: âWe're updating our style guide to introduce terms that more accurately describe the environmentalâ¦â Make sure you only use one though. The Guardian’s courageous attempt to resurrect the best Stalinist tradition of linguistic corruption deserves a detailed response.Carrington’s article about the updating of its style guide contained a link to the said style guide While terms like âGlobal Heatingâ donât quite roll off the tongue as much as the more familiar âGlobal Warmingâ, the change seems to be influenced by an article they wrote in December of 2018 justifying the term. The Guardian style guide is edited by David Marsh and Nikki Marshall The word and pdf versions of the Guardian style guide are regularly updated so return often to www.guardian.co.uk/styleguide for the latest additions. In the three examples, âwhich John builtâ, âwhich I read every dayâ and âwhich I grew from seedâ are all non-restrictive. titlesDo not italicise or put in quotes titles of books, films, TV programmes, paintings, songs, albums or anything else. The Guardian and Observer style guide This is the guide to writing, editing and English usage followed by journalists at the Guardian, Observer and theguardian.com. Style Guide 2018.indd 7 15/03/2018 13:49. viii Style Guide Throughout the text, italic type is used for examples except where guardian style guide titles times style guideguardian style guide numbers Manual dâestil interuniversitari per a la redaccio de textos institucionals en angles. Or perhaps snuck (according to Steven Pinker, the most recent irregular verb to enter the language). The BBC News style guide has been compiled to assist producers and journalists in writing for online, as well as all broadcast media. Exception: the Review and the Observer, which still italicise titles, toby juginexplicably capped up in the paper at least twice, to-ing and fro-ingYou need the hyphens to stop it looking like âtoyng and froyngâ, told the Guardianis used far too often: it should normally be replaced by âsaidâ and reserved for occasions when it genuinely adds interest or authority to a story (if someone got an exclusive interview with, say, Lord Lucan), Tolkien, JRR(1892-1973) British author and philologist, notable for writing The Lord of the Rings and not spelling his name âTolkeinâ. epilepsyA person with epilepsy might have a seizure, rather than a fit. University University of Cambridge is the University's title and should be used in all communications and publications. E coliIt is not normally necessary to use the full name, Escherichia coli. elegypoem of mourning; eulogy speech of praise. Prominent figures can just be named, with their function at second mention: âDavid Cameron said last nightâ (first mention); âthe prime minister saidâ (subsequent mentions). å¾ä¹¦Guardian Style ä»ç»ãä¹¦è¯ãè®ºååæ¨è This is the third, expanded and revised, edition of the modern Guardian style guide, used by journalists at the Guardian, the Observer and guardian.co.uk. May 17, 2019; Guardian Earlier this year, NPQ wrote about changes the Associated Press made to its style guide for journalists reporting on racism. The Guardian has updated its style guide to introduce terms that more accurately describe the environmental crises facing the world. HW Fowler was unimpressed by this argument and in practice very few people make the distinction. The Guardian Style Guide: by The Guardian; The Times Style and Usage Guide, by The Times. Use âtidy upâ rather than titivate or readers will probably think you mean titillate. A style guide is a set of editing and formatting standards for use by students, researchers, journalists, and other writers. Many people have been This style guide is updated regularly to ensure it remains relevant and responds accordingly to changes in language and common, casual usage. See burned, dreamed, learned, spelled, spoiled, Terfel, BrynWelsh opera singer; for some reason we often describe him as a tenor, but he is a bass baritone, Terminal 5at Heathrow may be abbreviated to T5 after first mention. The UN says no: âCriminal acts calculated to provoke a state of terror in the general public are in any circumstances unjustifiable, whatever the considerations of a political, philosophical, ideological, racial, ethnic, religious or other nature that may be invoked to justify them.â. Words in bold indicate a â¦ Guardian Style will help you distinguish between so-called rules of grammar that are an aid to good writing and those that you can cheerfully ignore. To avoid confusion, call it the “Strasbourg court” or the “human rights court” after first mention rather than the “European court”, European court of justicethe highest court in the European Union in matters of EU law; sits in Luxembourg, European stability mechanismESM for short, Euroscepticsceptical about Europe, not just the euro, evacuateYou can evacuate a place, or people from a place. As with other taxonomic names, italicise in copy but use roman in headlines and standfirsts; no full point. Creating a Solid Style Guide Creating a great web content style guide takes time, but it's time well spent if â¦ Instead of “climate change” the preferred terms are “climate emergency, crisis or breakdown” and “global heating” is favoured over “global warming”, although the original terms are not banned. Writers must put the date in brackets when there might be ambiguity, Tinker Tailor Soldier SpyJohn le CarrÃ© novel adapted for television by the BBC in 1979 (starring Alec Guinness as George Smiley) and, in September 2011, released as a feature film with Gary Oldman as Smiley, tipicloser to the original Lakota (a variety of Sioux) word thÃ pi, and therefore preferable to tepee, Tipp-ExTM; use correction fluid (not that many people do any more), tipping point another example of jargon that has quickly become hackneyed through overuse. (As Scott Fitzgerald said, it is like laughing at your own jokes), exclusiveterm used by tabloid newspapers to denote a story that is in all of them, executionthe carrying out of a legally authorised death sentence, so a terrorist or soldier, for example, does not “execute” someone, ex officioby right of position or office; ex parte on behalf of one party only, exorcisedhaving had evil spirits removed; often used erroneously for exercised having one’s passions inflamed by something. That isn't to say these don't each have their own "voice" -- Guardian Unlimited, for example, strives to be functional, terse and tight -- but our broad guidelines apply across the board. The only time this might be justified is when one person is given a series of life sentences, and âhe was jailed for a total of 650 yearsâ at least conveys how serious the crimes were, Toussaint LâOuverture, Pierre Dominique(1743-1803) leader of Haitiâs slave revolt of 1791 and subsequent fight for independence, which was granted in 1801, Townshend, Peteone of the two members of the Who who didnât die before he got old (the other is Roger Daltrey), Tpimsrather than TPIMs is the abbreviation for terrorism prevention and investigation measures; use sparingly, however: âmeasuresâ and similar terms are generally preferable, track recordrecord should normally be sufficient, trademarks (TM)Take care: use a generic alternative unless there is a very good reason not to, eg ballpoint pen, not biro (unless it really is a Biro, in which case it takes a cap B); say photocopy rather than Xerox, etc; you will save our lawyers, and those of Portakabin and various other companies, a lot of time and trouble, trade unionbut Trades Union Congress (TUC), tragicPeople do not need to be told that an accident is âtragicâ, traina number of things in a string, such as animals, railway carriages or wagons. An experience involving pain or suffering might be described as torturous. He began to drink; in fact he drank so much, he was drunk in no time at all. - BBC's Learning Portal At its height, elephants were not only in the room, but had taken over the whole house: “elephants in the room” included trade figures, policy, lack of policy, climate change, Iraq, the US, Europe, anti-Americanism, men, women, single women, a new French football league, race, religion, Islam, Catholicism, Tessa Jowell, Andrew Neil, Jimmy Greaves, fatness, thinness, Stalinism, Hitler and Tony Blair’s departure from office. In sport, EPO is a banned substance used to enhance performance in cycling and other endurance sports, equableunvarying; equitable fair“His temperament, like the climate, was equable. For the computer industry (software and hardware) Acorn Technical Publications Style Guide, by Acorn Computers. English Style Guide 4/117 25 November 2020 Introduction This Style Guide is intended primarily for English-language authors and translators, both in-house and freelance, working for the European Commission. The Guardian Style Guide The Guardian newspaper used have a reputation for typographical errors and was given the nickname The Grauniad by Private Eye, a satirical magazine. The Guardian and Observer Style Guide Edited by David Marsh and Amelia Hodsdon, this is the online version of Guardian Style. titillatemildly excite; titivate tidy up. Many of the reporters, columnists, critics and at … A word about relative clauses: restrictive relative clauses (also known as defining, best thought of as giving essential information by narrowing it down) are not enclosed by commas, whereas non-restrictive relative clauses (non-defining, giving non-essential information) are. But earned, not earnt, T(not tee) as in it suited her to a T, he had it down to a T, tabloidrefers to longstanding redtops such as the Sun and Daily Mirror, rather than the more recent breed of shrunken broadsheets; they are sometimes accused of writing in tabloidese, tabloid journalistsdefined by Charlie Brooker as âpeople who waste their lives actively making the world worseâ, Taiwanese nameslike Hong Kong and Korean names, these are in two parts with a hyphen, eg Lee Teng-hui (Lee after first mention), take-home pay refers to net (after tax), not gross, pay; we sometimes mistakenly use it as a synonym for salary, Talibanplural (it means students); the singular is Talib, talismanplural talismans, not âtalismenâ, talkshowmainly American English; the British English version is chatshow, TalkSportalthough the radio stationâs brand is talkSPORT, Tamiflutrade name of oseltamivir, an antiviral drug that slows the spread of the influenza virus between cells in the body. This is the searchable version. Others may point to what they regard as âstate terrorismâ. The week starts on Mondays, but stories published on Sunday refer to the following week as âthis weekâ and the six days preceding that Sunday as âlast weekâ. In an update to its house style guide reported Friday, the paper now recommends writers use "climate emergency, crisis or breakdown" instead of "climate change" and "global heating" instead of "global warming." It is often called a style sheet, although that term also has other meanings.The standards can be applied either for general use, or be required usage for an individual publication, a particular organization, or a specific field. Style Guide is fast becoming the go-to option for online content creators. The Guardianâs online style guide, which is publically available (and vast) has already been updated with the changes in the email. Other theatres: lowercase for âtheatreâ, eg Adelphi theatre, Crucible theatre (but normally just Adelphi, Crucible). To make the style guide of greater general interest, Part 3 consists of handy reference material that might appeal to readers of The Economist. The term is redolent of the days of empire and used only to describe Brits abroad, who might more accurately be termed emigrants, Export Credits Guarantee DepartmentECGD at second mention, extracurricular, extramarital, extraterrestrial, extraterritorial, “extrajudicial killing”should be used only when quoting someone, eyesis being used increasingly for “considers”, but it doesn’t mean that. To add to the confusion, there is also a presidency of the council of the European Union, held by a national government, which rotates among member states every six months, Euroshould not be used as a prefix to everything European, but Euro-MP is an acceptable alternative to MEP, Euro Disneyruns what is now called Disneyland Paris, Europeincludes Britain, so don’t say, for example, something is common “in Europe” unless it is common in Britain as well; to distinguish between Britain and the rest of Europe the phrases “mainland Europe” or “elsewhere in Europe” may be useful, central Europe, eastern Europe, western Europe, European commissionthe commission after first mention; do not abbreviate to EC, European councilEU institution; not to be confused with the Council of Europe, European court of human rightsnothing to do with the EU: it is a Council of Europe body; sits in Strasbourg. This is the third, expanded and revised, edition of the modern Guardian style guide, used by journalists at the Guardian, the Observer and guardian.co.uk. eke outThis used to mean making a small amount go further, as in “she eked out her rations by serving string instead of spaghetti”. elephant in the roomLike governments and reality TV series, metaphors that we once welcomed into our lives as refreshing can become all too familiar, to the point of tedium – and this cliche is a fine example. Tip: … 4 .. ‘Some editors are failed writers, but so are most writers.’ TS Eliot• Follow the style guide on Twitter: @guardianstyle, A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z. each other or one another?Some traditionalists say the former should apply only to two people (“Iniesta and Xavi hugged each other”) and the latter to more than two (“all 11 Spanish players hugged one another”). Small capitals are used only in the way The Economist uses them, for which see the entry abbreviations. Often, alternatives such as militants, radicals, separatists, etc, may be more appropriate and less controversial, but this is a difficult area: references to the âresistanceâ, for example, imply more sympathy to a cause than calling such fighters âinsurgentsâ. ), Eskimois a language spoken in Greenland, Canada, Alaska and Siberia. Guardian is made up of eight related families—Egyptian Headline, Egyptian Text, Sans Headline (in four widths), Sans Text and Agate Sans. The Guardian and Observer style guide Guardian and Observer style guide: E ‘Some editors are failed writers, but so are most writers.’ TS Eliot viii Style Guide Throughout the text, italic type is used for examples except where they are presented in lists, when the type is roman, as this text is. The Guardian digital design style guide Introduction The Guardian website is made up of a series of fronts and articles. Finally, he sneaked away. Ernest Now, the Guardian is announcing a change to its style guide for reporting on the environment. The official guide to house style for The Daily Telegraph, its supplements and magazines; The Sunday Telegraph, its supplements and magazines; and Telegraph.co.uk. Guardian Style will help you distinguish between so-called rules of grammar that are an aid to good writing and those that you can cheerfully ignore. This guide includes style preferences that are specific to the University. etc, east Asiaor south-east Asia rather than far east, east coast mainlineruns from London King’s Cross to Edinburgh. This replaces Oxford Dictionary for Writers and Editors. The BBC News style guide has been compiled to assist producers and journalists in writing for online, as well as all broadcast media. Does having a good cause make a difference? Find an external style guide: No, this isn't cheating. viii Style Guide text is. English Style Guide 4/117 25 November 2020 Introduction This Style Guide is intended primarily for English-language authors and translators, both in-house and freelance, working for the European Commission. She meant âshould advertising that targets children be banned?â. Note that the phrase âwar on terrorâ should always appear in quotes, whether used by us or (more likely) quoting someone else, Tessatax-exempt special savings account, replaced by Isas, Test(cricket and rugby) the third Test, etc, Texana person; the adjective is Texas: Texas Ranger, Texas oilwells, Texas tea etc, Thaksin Shinawatraformer prime minister of Thailand; Thaksin on second mention, thatDo not use automatically after the word âsaidâ, but it can be useful: you tend to read a sentence such as âhe said nothing by way of an explanation would be forthcomingâ as âhe said nothing by way of an explanationâ and then realise that it does not say that at all; âhe said that nothing by way of an explanation would be forthcomingâ is much clearer. epicentrepoint on the Earth’s surface directly above the focus of an earthquake or underground explosion; frequently misused to mean the centre or focus itself and is also not a synonym for “dead centre”. Surname only on subsequent mentions, except in leading articles. EU presidentsThere are three, so don’t say “EU president” or “president of the union” without making clear which you mean: president of the European commission (currently Ursula von der Leyen), president of the European parliament (currently David Sassoli), or president of the European council (sometimes referred to as president of the EU), appointed for a two-and-a-half-year term with the possibility of renewal once (currently Charles Michel). A good style guide lays the foundations for consistent, on-message brand content to be created (be it in-house, agency or freelance) and approved. It is designed to create a state of terror in the minds of a particular group of people or the public as a whole for political or social ends. We recommend the Guardian and Observer style guide for issues not covered here.   The Guardian later clarified: "In 1980, the Israeli Knesset enacted a law designating the city of Jerusalem, including East Jerusalem, as the country's capital. times1am, 6.30pm, etc; 10 oâclock last night but 10pm yesterday; half past two, a quarter to three, 10 to 11, etc; 2hr 5min 6sec, etc; for 24-hour clock, 00.47, 23.59; noon, midnight (not 12 noon, 12 midnight or 12am, 12pm). The Guardian and Observer style guide ... • Follow the style guide on Twitter: @guardianstyle. Seizures are epileptic, people are not – we do not define people by their medical condition; so say (if relevant) “Joe Bloggs, who has epilepsy” not “Joe Bloggs, an epileptic”, epinephrine autoinjectordevice for injecting epinephrine (adrenaline), most often used for the treatment of anaphylaxis; normally abbreviated to EpiPen, epithalamiumpoem written for the bride on her way to the marital chamber, such as the poem by Andrew Motion, his first as poet laureate, on the marriage of Prince Edward and Sophie Rhys-Jones in 1999. For figurative use, write tons (Iâve had tons of birthday cards, etc), tornadoplural tornadoes (storm); Tornado plural Tornados (aircraft), torpid, turbid or turgid?Thereâs plenty of opportunity to get these wrong, and plenty of people do: torpid means apathetic or sluggish; turbid is muddy, thick or cloudy; turgid means congested or swollen, and therefore can be handy if you want to accuse someone of using bombastic or pompous language, tortuous or torturous?A long and winding road is tortuous. An existing style guide will answer the majority of your content creators' questions. The possessive is singular: they shook each other’s hand, EADSEuropean Aeronautic Defence and Space Company; the group includes the aircraft manufacturer Airbus and is the major partner in the Eurofighter consortium, earlieroften redundant: “they met this week” or “it happened this month” are preferable to “they met earlier this week” or “it happened earlier this month” and will save space, Earl’s Courtstation and districtEarls Courtexhibition centre, earnrather than learn that a banker or footballer earns, say, £15m a year, readers have indicated that they would prefer us to say “is paid £15m a year” or “receives £15m a year”, Earthwhen talking about the planet, but earth in such idioms as down to earth, what on earth? Note that E coli is a bacterium, not a virus, eco-friendlybut ecohome, ecosystem, ecotown, ecowarrior, ecuEuropean currency unit, superseded by the euro, Edinburgh festivalcomprises the following:Edinburgh international festivalEdinburgh festival fringe (not fringe festival, but the fringe is OK)Edinburgh international book festival, editorlc: editor of the Observer, editor of the Bromley, Bexley and Eltham Leader series, etc. He sank into depression, knowing that all his hopes had been sunk. Names of trains take the definite article (the Flying Scotsman); names of locomotives do not (Mallard), âtheâ in name of a countryinclude âtheâ:the Bahamas, the British Virgin Islands, the Cayman Islands, the Czech Republic, the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, no âtheâ, on second mention), the Dominican Republic, the Gambia, the Marshall Islands, the Netherlands (but The Hague), the Northern Mariana Islands, the Philippines, the Solomon Islands, the United Arab Emirates (the UAE on second mention), the United Kingdom, the United States.no âtheâCentral African Republic (CAR on second mention), Ivory Coast, Lebanon, Seychelles, Sudan, Ukraine, Vatican City (but the Vatican), Yemen, the3millionBrexit campaign group for EU citizens living in the UK, theatrethe Royal National Theatre, commonly known as the National, comprises three auditoriums: the Olivier, the Lyttelton, and the Dorfman (formerly Cottesloe) â no need to add âtheatreâ to these, but if you do, itâs lowercase â and the Temporary theatre (formerly the Shed). Nonetheless we need to be very careful about using the term: it is still a subjective judgment â one personâs terrorist may be another personâs freedom fighter, and there are former âterroristsâ holding elected office in many parts of the world. The British style guide that is appropriate for academic papers is the MHRA Style Guide, published by the Modern Humanities Research Association. Words in titles take initial caps except for a, and, at, for, from, in, of, on, the, to (except in initial position or after a colon): A Tale of Two Cities, Happy End of the World, Shakespeare in Love, Superman: The Early Years, Iâm in Love With the Girl on a Certain Manchester Megastore Checkout Desk, etc. Their guidance is provided to â¦ Though the guide will include general rules about these aspects of writing, it will also contain specific instructions and rules. Guardian Style-David Marsh 2010 A completely revised and updated edition of the Guardian's indispensable guide to good style, used by journalists at one of the world's most stylishly written and edited newspapers Guardian Style-David Marsh 2007 Completely revised and updates, this wise, witty and informed guide from one of the world's most The official name of the franchise is East Coast, currently operated by Inter City Railways, a joint venture owned 90% by Stagecoach, 10% by Virgin Trains, with trains branded Virgin Trains East Coast, East Endinner east London north of the river; the equivalent district south of the Thames is south-east London, EastEndersTV soap; in real life, people from the East End are East Enders, EasterThe day between Good Friday and Easter Day is Holy Saturday, not Easter Saturday, which falls a week later, easyCouncilapproach to local government favoured by some Conservative authorities, modelled on the no-frills approach of budget airlines such as easyJet, eBaybut Ebay if you cannot avoid starting a sentence or headline with it, Ebolaa virus and a disease, Ebola haemorrhagic fever (EHF), ebook, emailbut e-cigarette, e-commerce, e-learning, e-petition, e-reader, ecclesiastical titlesMost Rev (archbishop), Right Rev (bishop), Very Rev (dean or provost), the Ven (archdeacon), the Rev John (or Joan) Smith – not “Rev John Smith”, “Rev Smith”, “the Revs Smith and Jones”. If it is thought necessary to explain who someone is, write âNigel Adkins, the Sheffield United manager, saidâ or âthe Sheffield United manager, Nigel Adkins, saidâ. that or which?The traditional definition is that âthatâ defines and âwhichâ informs (gives extra information), as in:âThis is the house that Jack built; but this house, which John built, is falling down.ââThe Guardian, which I read every day, is the paper that I admire above all others.ââI am very proud of the sunflowers that I grew from seedâ (some of them); âI am very proud of the sunflowers, which I grew from seedâ (all of them).Note that in such examples the sentence remains grammatical without âthatâ (âthis is the house Jack built,â âThe Guardian is the paper I admire above all others,â âI am very proud of the sunflowers I grewâ) but not without âwhichâ (âthis house, John built, is falling downâ).