The result for the time spent per day accessing the Internet via a mobile device (in minutes) are stored in Internet_Mobile_Time.csv file. Hypothesis Testing: Hypothesis testing a rule or statistical process that may be resulted in either rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis (H0). implying the success of sales interventions). Table 1 shows the outputs of the salespeople in Table 1. Statistics are the values characterising the sample i.e. R&R Case Study Help Analysis With Solution Online Searching for quality work at affordable price than you are at the most dynamic and popular online solution powered site where thousands of question and answer delivered. So, the comparison will be between observed value of test statistic (estimated from sample), and critical value of test statistic (obtained from relevant theoretical probability distribution). 1-Description of Industry Analysis:-The furniture industry was highly competitive. The scheme has now been in operation for four months. Then the sampling distribution of the statistic (x̄1 – x̄2) will follow Student’s t distribution with mean µx̄ = µ1– µ2 and standard error Se =√ (s²1/ n1 + s²2/ n2). Here, for testing the difference of two population mean, we assume that samples have been drawn from populations following Normal Distributions, but it is a very common situation that population standard deviations (σ1 and σ2) are unknown. (σ) by sample s.d. Here, t statistic will follow t distribution with d.f. This is known as the problem of Significant Testing or Testing of Hypothesis. (The critical region is shown as a shaded portion in the figure). It's actually hard to resist the temptation to speed things up when it has to do with R R Case Case Solution. R R Case Harvard Case Study Solution & Online Case Analysis. μ1 = Average sums assured by salesperson BEFORE changeover. Hence, less will be the confidence that we may place on the value of the statistic for estimation purposes. Plastics Case Solution. Sunday, November 29th, 2020 : Ogden: Olesen: 75th Street: Dawn: 5:35 AM: 5:35 AM: 5:35 AM: Fajr: 6:15 AM: 6:15 AM: 6:15 AM: Dhuhr The case study solution provides you the best case study. Second, since H0 is to be tested so it is H0 only that may be rejected or failed to be rejected (retained). C.R. When x̄ is significantly above the hypothesized population mean µ0 then H0 will be rejected and the test used will be right tailed test (upper tailed test) since the critical region (denoting rejection of H0 will be in the right tail of the normal curve (representing sampling distribution of sample statistic x̄). t-test is not much affected if assumption of normality is violated provided data is slightly asymmetrical (near to symmetry) and data-set does not contain outliers. It is assumed that you are familiar will all of the commands discussed throughout this tutorial. Today, Heineken is the number one brewer in Europe and the number two brewer in the world. Great Learning is an ed-tech company that offers impactful and industry-relevant programs in high-growth areas. A hotel manager looks to enhance the initial impressions that hotel guests have when they check-in. value/ p-value. population mean (µ), population standard deviation (σ), population proportion (P) etc. It identifies the issues or gap between the current and desired type of the organization, and thus requires to be stated in order for the management to look for change. Describe the five per cent significance test you would apply to these data to determine whether the new scheme has significantly raised outputs? Tips and advice on how to protect you and your business. Mr. Mehta listening to this case understood the situation and realized the reason behind the partial response given by the employees towards Franklin and Harsha. Innovation & Entrepreneurship Case Study | Authors :: Thomas R. Eisenmann, Laura Winig Shows the means by which an experienced entrepreneur can gain control of the resources necessary. It gives the probability of getting a value of statistic this far or farther from the hypothesised value if H0 is true. If p-value is small, it means there are less chances (rare case) in favour of H0 occuring, as the difference between a sample value and hypothesised value is significantly large so H0 may be rejected, otherwise it may be retained. As Franklin said both Harsha and Franklin are passed out from the same college in the same year. The new scheme has NOT significantly raised outputs. Google+. It is so known because it assumes no relationship or no difference from the hypothesized value of population parameter(s) or to be nullified. The standard deviation of sampling distribution of a sample statistic is better known as the Standard Error of the sample statistic. The analogue of this solution in classical Newtonian theory of gravity corresponds on the gravitational discipline about a point particle. Lamson Corp. (R) Case Solution, Shows a simulation game that participants can make up to 12 scheduling decisions under conditions of demand uncertainty. Two-tailed test could have been used if it was asked “new scheme has significantly, Mean of amount assured before the introduction of scheme = 68450, Mean of amount assured after the introduction of scheme = 72000, Difference in mean = 72000 – 68450 = 3550, μ1 = Average sums assured by salesperson BEFORE changeover. So, there must be some dividing value (s) that differentiates between the two decisions: rejection (critical region) and retention (acceptance region), this boundary value is known as the critical value. Knowing about the population-values on the basis of data from the sample. It may be further explained as the probability of observing the test statistic if H0 is true i.e. (b)  What is the p-value of the hypothesis test if we test for a difference of $5000? Solution for HRM Case Study 1. R&R case study #1 And for Parker Bros & Milton Bradley ? Solution contributed by Ananya Nandan and Munmun Mohanty. If the hypothesis parameter falls within the confidence interval, we do not reject H. Hogg, R. V.; McKean, J. W. & Craig, A. T. (2013). Shape of t distribution changes with degrees of freedom (exact distribution) and becomes approximately close to Normal distribution for large n. In many business decision making situations, decision makers are interested in comparison of two populations i.e. R & R Case Study Solution . Weekend challenge #11. 17.1. The client identified staff recruitment issues. So the issue is not the difference but actually the magnitude of difference. We want to test the Null Hypothesis: (where θ may take any value as per the situation or θ =0). Know More, © 2020 Great Learning All rights reserved. This is better known as Sampling distribution of the sample statistic. But the pattern for solving these case studies varies from university to university. WEEKEND CHALLENGE #9 and IIFT CASE STUDY CHALLENGE. All Rights Reserved. Hence, H0 got rejected and it can be said that urban outlets are giving lower sales in the first quarter. In this case, if x̄ is significantly below the hypothesised population mean µ0 then H0 will be rejected and the test used will be the left tailed test (lower tailed test) since the critical region (denoting rejection of H0) will be in the left tail of the normal curve (representing sampling distribution of sample statistic x̄). Contributing to initial impressions is the time it takes to deliver a guest’s luggage to the room after check-in. This article makes you familiar with some methods to solve a case study in Management. R&R case study solution, R&R case study analysis, Subjects Covered Capital costs Development stage enterprises Entrepreneurship by Howard H. Stevenson, Jose-Carlos Jarillo Mossi Source: HBS Premier Case … What conclusion does the test lead to?Solution:It is asked that whether the new scheme has significantly raised the output, it is an example of the one-tailed t-test.Note: Two-tailed test could have been used if it was asked “new scheme has significantly changed the output”Mean of amount assured before the introduction of scheme = 68450Mean of amount assured after the introduction of scheme = 72000Difference in mean = 72000 – 68450 = 3550Let,μ1 = Average sums assured by salesperson BEFORE changeover. If samples are related or paired or having two observations at different points of time on the same unit/respondent, then the samples are said to be dependent or paired. To test the effectiveness of the scheme, Titan has taken a random sample of 30 salespeople measured their output in the penultimate month before changeover and then measured it in the fourth month after the changeover (they have deliberately chosen months not too close to the changeover). The client wanted to drive individual performance cohesively towards shared business objectives. To test the validity of this statement, you select a sample of 30 friends and family. When x̄ is significantly different (significantly higher or lower than) from the hypothesised population mean µ0, then H0 will be rejected. So, due to practical considerations, we take up a representative subset from the population, known as Sample. This is a case study written by Hugh McElroy, which is being designed for each year's On comparing the observed value of Test statistic with that of the critical value, we may identify whether the observed value lies in the critical region (reject H0) or in the acceptance region (do not reject H0) and decide accordingly. We have a team of seasoned and professional case study writers who are experienced in providing case solutions. Suppose it has been calculated that for Titan to break even, the average output must increase by £5000. Example: comparing sales of rural and urban outlets, comparing sales before the advertisement and after advertisement, comparison of salaries in between male and female employees, comparison of salary before and after joining the data science courses etc. Normally α is fixed and we try to minimise β. (a) Population Standard Deviations are unknown but equal: In this situation (where σ1 and σ2 are unknown but assumed to be equal), sampling distribution of the statistic (x̄1 – x̄2) will follow Student’s t distribution with mean µx̄ = µ1– µ2 and standard error σx̄ = √ Sp2(1/ n1 + 1/ n2). Our writers have vast knowledge in the field of case studies, and with the help of this knowledge they assist you in your case study regardless the topic and tight deadline. This is under the condition that n is large such that both np and nq should be minimum 5. it didn’t result in significant increase in sales, provided all other extraneous factors remain the same. (Source: The 2014 Digital Marketer, available at The p-value (Sig) = 0.460 >0.05, so we can’t reject (so retained) H0. Then, the sampling distribution of sample statistic x̄ will follow Normal Distribution with mean µx̄ = µ and standard error σx̄ = σ/√n. Buy Now. what are the chances in support of occurrence of H0. There are two types of situations (H0 is true or false) which are complementary to each other and two types of complementary decisions (Reject H0 or Failing to Reject H0). (The critical region is shown as a shaded portion in the figure). Here, both the outputs for Equal Variance (assumed) and Unequal Variance (assumed) are presented. Download PDF . If you want to learn more about R programming and other concepts of Business Analytics or Data Science, sign up for Great Learning’s PG program in Data Science and Business Analytics. He has co-authored the famous book "Statistics for Management" (ISBN: 978-93-325-8118-0; Person Publications). Suppose, α has been decided as 5%, so the critical value of test statistic (Z) will be +1.645 (for right tail test), -1.645 (for left tail test). Alternative Hypothesis (H1): The hypothesis opposite/complementary to the Null Hypothesis. Hypothesis Testing in R- Introduction Examples and Case Study. The Paired t-Test is applied essentially on one sample while the earlier one is applied on two samples. Power of the test.Solution:Let  μ2 = Average sums assured by salesperson AFTER changeover. This belongs to the Confirmatory Data Analysis, as to confirm or otherwise the hypothesis developed in the earlier Exploratory Data Analysis stage. The employee’s performance and attendance had begun to cause concern and the client was worried. A selection of Resourcing Solutions case studies for you to read through detailing the briefs, what we did and the results we achieved Where Sp2 is the pooled estimate, given by: So, the corresponding Test Statistics will be: t =  {(x̄1 – x̄2) – (µ1– µ2)}/{√ Sp2(1/n1 +1/n2)}. Finally, conclude the appropriate solution. Example: In Indian Judicial System we have H0: Under trial is innocent. (b). We’ll keep you up to date with all the latest in employment law and HR. If we minimize one, the other will increase and vice versa. You can easily search for a related questions in a category. Problem 2Suppose it has been calculated that for Titan to break even, the average output must increase by £5000. Higher the standard error, higher is the variation among different possible values of statistics. R&R Case Solution, Describe alternative mechanisms to enter the business. Harvard Case Study Analysis Solutions. Sample, in principle, can never be a perfect replica of the population so we do expect that there will be variation in between population and sample values. Facebook. X’s output for the month is the total of these sums assured, £61,500. Here, the claim is that urban outlets are giving lower sales as compared to rural outlets. The “right fit” employees were not joining. IBM SPSS Statistics. This Human Resource Management HRM case study on Employee Relations with solution explains the problems faced by employees with high involvement. Hypothesis may be defined as a claim/ positive declaration/ conjecture about the population parameter. μd = μ2 – μ1   H0: μd = 4000. Accordingly, the value of t statistic = -4.965 and the p-value (two tailed) = 0.000, so the p-value (one tailed) = 0.000/2 = 0.000 <0.05. R R Case Case Solution is simply among the most basic methods to earn money writing. Sampling distribution of sample proportion p =x/n (where x = Number of success out of a total of n) will follow Normal Distribution with mean µp = P and standard error σp = √(PQ/n), (where Q = 1-P). Alternatively, the sample statistic is a random variable, being a function of sample values (which are random variables themselves). CASE STUDY 10 SOLUTION BY A PRODUCT MANAGEMENT ASPIRANT. If this figure is an alternative hypothesis, what is: (b)  What is the p-value of the hypothesis test if we test for a difference of $5000? The agreement with the sales force is that if the scheme does not at least break even for the company, it will be abandoned after six months. β = Probability of committing Type II error = P [Fails to reject H0 / H0 is false]. So, we have evidence (data) from the sample and we need to decide for the population on the basis of that data from the sample i.e. Solution contributed by Ashwin Srivastava. USE THIS CASE STUDY TEMPLATE . Displays the means by which an experienced contractor can take control of the resources needed to re It is a measure of the extent of variation among different values of statistics from different possible samples. Note: Though the application of z-test requires the ‘Normality Assumption’ for the parent population with known standard deviation/ variance but if sample is large (n>30), the normality assumption for the parent population may be relaxed, provided population standard deviation/variance is known (as per Central Limit Theorem). having heavier tails. According, sampling distribution of the statistic (x̄1 – x̄2) will follow Normal distribution with mean µx̄ = µ1– µ2 and standard error σx̄ = √ (σ²1/ n1 + σ²2/ n2). z-test – Hypothesis Testing of Population Mean when Population Standard Deviation is known: Hypothesis testing in R starts with a claim or perception of the population. Our case solution is based on Case Study Method expertise & our global insights.. Students are not sure about which method they have to follow. Harvard Business Case Studies Solutions - Assignment Help. Prof. (Dr.) Masood H. Siddiqui is a Professor in the area of Decision Sciences & Business Analytics and Dean (Research) at Jaipuria Institute of Management, Lucknow. In the last decade Heineken have significantly increased R & R Case Case Solution Summary of the case The case study analyzes the opportunities and risks in the gaming industry that Reiss faced in order to succeed. A sample of size ‘n’ has been drawn for a normal population N (µ, σ), but population standard deviation σ is unknown, so in this case σ will be estimated by sample standard deviation(s). Solution contributed by Virali Parekh. characteristics of the sample. Since population standard deviation is unknown. The client identified that substantial cost savings were necessary in order to reduce financial deficits. Examining the declaration/perception/claim about the population for its correctness on the basis of sample data. Here, we consider the example of Ventura Sales, and want to examine the perception that average sales in the first quarter is 75 (thousand) vs it is not. So, the Hypotheses: H0: µ1= µ2 (Where, µ1= Population Mean Sale of Quarter-I and µ2 = Population Mean Sale of Quarter-II), H1: µ1< µ2 (representing the increase of sales i.e. reddit. It is equal to type I error, as discussed earlier. μ1 = Average sums assured by salesperson BEFORE changeover. For the two tails test, the critical value will be -1.96 and +1.96 (as per the Standard Normal Distribution Z table). So, H0 got rejected and it can be said that the claim of average first quarterly sales being 75 (thousand) does not hold. If sample statistics is used to estimate the population parameter, then in that situation that is known as the Estimator; {like sample mean (x̄) to estimate population mean µ, sample proportion (p) to estimate population proportion (P) etc.}. IBM Corporation. As discussed earlier, in the situation of Before-After Tests, to examine the impact of any intervention like a training program, health program, any campaign to change status, we have two set of observations (xi and yi) on the same test unit (respondent or units) before and after the program. Use the p-value approach and a level of significance of 0.05. For a good testing procedure, both types of errors should be low (minimise α and β) but simultaneous minimisation of both the errors is not possible because they are interconnected. So they are estimated by sample standard deviations (s1 and s2) from the respective two samples. frequency distribution of sample statistic. Some sales promotion interventions were executed with an expectation of increasing sales in the second quarter. (The critical regions are shown as shaded portions in the figure). Here, the concept of probability is used through sampling distribution to deal with the uncertainty. Analyze the data and determine whether there is a difference in the mean delivery times in the two wings of the hotel. So the claim under H0 may be rejected as the chance of having such a sample for this population is quite low. So, the corresponding statistic is = (x̄1 – x̄2). Harvard Case Studies. It consists of dividing the sample space (the totality of all the possible outcomes) into two complementary parts. As we have observed, paired t-test is actually one sample test since two samples got converted into one sample of differences. The Student’s t-distribution, is much similar to the normal distribution. Levin, R. I.; Rubin, D. S; Siddiqui, M. H. & Rastogi, S. (2017). The size (probability/area) of a critical region is taken as α. Then, sampling distribution of sample statistic x̄ will follow the student’s t distribution (with degree of freedom = n-1) having mean µx̄ = µ and standard error σx̄ = s/√n. Both of them joined the company together both have the same experience. Solution: Probability of Type I error = significant level = 0.05 or 5%. PG program in Data Science and Business Analytics. The test is the statistical rule/process of deciding to ‘reject’ or ‘fail to reject’ (retain) the H0. A case study is a special type of thought leadership content that tells a story. Plastics Case Study Help - Case Solution & Analysis Case Solutions. It is known as probability value/ prob. Since the given data are in 000, it will be better to convert them in thousands.Problem 1Describe the five per cent significance test you would apply to these data to determine whether the new scheme has significantly raised outputs? Accordingly, the p-value (two tailed) = 0.688, so the p-value (one tailed) = 0.688/2 = 0.344 > 0.05. Solutions for HR 10 St Mary’s Place Bury Lancashire BL9 0DZ. What conclusion does the test lead to? It has settled down after fluctuations in the first two months due to the changeover. Descriptive table showing the sample sizes n1=37 and n2=23, sample means x̄1=67.86 and x̄2=78.70, sample standard deviations s1=8.570 and s2= 7.600. H0: µ = µ0  or µ ≤ µ0  or µ ≥ µ0  (here, the first one is Simple Hypothesis, rest two variants are composite hypotheses), (Here, all three variants are Composite Hypothesis). Ta. A sample is a representative in the sense that it is expected to exhibit the properties of the population, from where it has been drawn. Solution contributed by Ananya … Thera bank case study using r solutions. A sample of size ‘n’ has been drawn for a normal population N (µ, σ). The below table is the Independent Sample Test Table, proving all the relevant test statistics and p-values. (n1+n2-2). Topics: Trivia, Trivial Pursuit, Game Pages: 4 (1343 words) Published: August 23, 2013. Everything else in the testing process remains the same. While performing Hypothesis-Testing, Hypotheses can’t be proved or disproved since we have evidence from sample (s) only. They had received concerns from employees relating to inappropriate behaviour. Search Paper on caseforest database. Rent the Runway is a Harvard Business (HBR) Case Study on Innovation & Entrepreneurship , Fern Fort University provides HBR case study assignment help for just $11. Each sample may provide a value of sample statistic, so there will be a distribution of sample statistic value from all the possible samples i.e.