ex Heynh. Central Arid Zone Research Institute Monograph, No. In: Felker P, Moss J, Eds, Prosopis: semi-arid fuelwood and forage tree. Thiri Aung, Koike F, 2015. P. juliflora has been noted as invasive in protected areas in South Asia, notably grasslands in Gujarat and native xerophytic woodlands in Rajasthan, as well as a national park in Sri Lanka. http://i3n.institutohorus.org.br. Biological Control, 16(3):283-290; 32 ref, Klinken RD van, Campbell S, 2001. There are records of P. juliflora in Ecuador and Peru (Burkart, 1976; Diaz Celis, 1995) however more recently these have been disputed and P. juliflora is absent from these countries (Palacios et al., 2011). The Current State of Knowledge on Prosopis juliflora. A major limitation to the distribution of the truly tropical P. juliflora is mean minimum temperatures, and the frequency and duration of winter frosts. Percentage pollination in P. juliflora is always low, which is thought may be due to: poor pollen viability, short periods of pollen release or stigma receptivity, lack of synchronisation between pollen release and pollen reception, few pollinating insects (or too few at times of maximum receptivity), flower sterility or high rates of ovary abortion. The vilayati kikar, Prosopis juliflora, allows no other species to thrive. The presence of chlorophyll in the green stems of P. juliflora is also a response to drought, allowing for leaf shedding during dry periods while still maintaining some photosynthetic potential (El Fadl, 1997). It has become established as an invasive weed in Africa, Asia, Australia and elsewhere. Farasan Archipelago. Leaves bipinnate, glabrous or pubescent, 1-3 pairs of pinnae, rarely 4 pairs; petiole plus rachis (when present) 0.5-7.5 cm long; pinnae 3-11 cm long; leaflets 6 to 29, generally 11 to 15 pairs per pinna, elliptic-oblong, glabrous or ciliate, rarely pubescent, approximate on the rachis or distant a little more than their own width, herbaceous to submembranous (not sub-coriaceous as in more xerophilous species and therefore often corrugated or curved when dried), emarginated or obtuse, pinnate-reticulately curved; leaflets 6-23 mm long x 1.6-5.5 mm wide. In: Felker P, Moss J, eds. For a comprehensive review of the uses of P. juliflora, refer to Pasiecznik et al. Ciencia Rural, 24(3):629-630; 6 ref, Tortorelli LA, 1956. H.B.K. Utilization and nitrogen fixation of Prosopis juliflora in Senegal. Assessment of the status of agrobiodiversity in Djibouti. Agroforestry Systems, 21(3):293-300, Zimmermann H, Pasiecznik NM, 2005. Prosopis juliflora is a legume tree or shrub native to northern South America, Central America and the Caribbean. In parts of India, one or two fruiting periods occur, depending on site and the 'form' of P. juliflora present (Luna, 1996). Studies on succession suggest the possibility of 'ecological control', by leaving succession to take its natural course. Anther glands in P. juliflora release a protein-carbohydrate exudate and the flower is pollinated while the insect eats the gland (Chaudhry and Vijayaraghavan, 1992). Setropa). The factor common to most Prosopis invasions is over-grazing with cattle, which spreads Prosopis seed widely. Journal of Arid Environments, 23:309-319, Lee SG, Russell EJ, Bingham RL, Felker P, 1992. Comportamento silvicultural de especies de Prosopis, em Petrolina-PE, Regi¦o Semi-Arida Brasileira. Nitrogen Fixing Tree Research Reports, 8:73-74, I3N Brasil, 2015. Implications of uncertain Prosopis taxonomy for biocontrol. Fire has been used in conjunction with other methods in the development of integrated eradication programmes. P. juliflora is a tree 3-12 m tall, sometimes shrubby with spreading branches; wood hard; branches cylindrical, green, more or less round- or flat-topped, somewhat spiny with persistent, green (sometimes glaucous or greyish, not reddish) foliage, glabrous or somewhat pubescent or ciliate on the leaflets; spines axillary, uninodal, divergent, paired, or solitary and paired on the same branches, sometimes absent, not on all branchlets, measuring 0.5-5.0 cm long, being largest on strong, basal shoots. Prosopis are phraetophytic and are known to possess very deep roots which will use subterranean water when no surface water is available. Agroforestry Systems, 29(1):61-75; 17 ref, Singh G, 1996. Forest Ecology and Management, 48(1-2):1-13, Lima PCF, 1994. Managing Prosopis juliflora (Vilayati babul): a Technical Manual., Jodhpur; Coventry, India; UK: CAZRI; HDRA. The use of Prosopis juliflora for irrigated shelterbelts in arid conditions in northern Sudan. horrida, are now absorbed synonymously with P. pallida and/or P. limensis. The Madurai bench of the Madras High Court has ordered Tamil Nadu government to enact a law with prohibitory and penal clauses to eradicate Seemai Karuvelam (prosopis juliflora) trees within two months. in Kenya. Benth. Chemical treatments involve the use of herbicides to kill trees, with the most effective being stem or aerial applications of systemic herbicides. In: Assessment of the status of agrobiodiversity in Djibouti. East African Network for Taxonomy. These regularly attack Prosopis but the trees have adapted to infestation by these pests and are still able to become invasive weeds over large tracts of land. by Muniappan, R. \Reddy, G. V. P. \Raman, A.]. P. juliflora has been successfully raised using saline irrigation water, with an electrical conductivity of 20 dS/m in India (Singh, 1996) and 6-21 dS/m in Pakistan (Khan et al., 1986). Journal of Range Management, 46:483-486, Perry G, 1998. US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Handbook 249, Luna RK, 1996. EPPO Global database. Phenology, morphology, physiology. In India, ammonium sulfamate was successful in killing P. juliflora trees and as a stump treatment (Panchal and Shetty, 1977). Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser. 22, Jodhpur, India. CABI, 2005. Exceptional physical properties of Texas mesquite wood. by Dutton RW]. Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC, here after referred to as Prosopis, is an evergreen tree native to South America, Central America and the Caribbean. The pods are indehiscent, and relished by livestock, accounting for widespread dispersal of seed across rangeland. and P. pallida (H. & B. ex. Although trees do not necessarily have to be equally spaced, leaving open rows 5-10 m apart will facilitate access and increase the number of understorey management options possible with tractor operations. Prosopis: semi-arid fuelwood and forage tree. Kingsville, TX 332 pp, Felker P, Smith D, Wiesman C, Bingham RL, 1989. Managing Prosopis juliflora (Vilayati babul): a Technical Manual. (2001): Prosopis juliflora (Sw.) DC. Raizada and Chatterji (1954) state that the first introductions were of Mexican origin in 1877, with two further supplies of seed received through Kew Gardens, UK, and the India Office in 1878. Another Tamil name is velikathan (வேலிகாத்தான்), from veli (வேலி) "fence" and kathan (காத்தான்) "protector", for its use to make spiny barriers. Some taxonomic and ecophysiological aspects of the algarrobo in the northern coast of Peru. are damaging in some areas, with adult beetles girdling small branches before ovipositing. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Identification of invasion status using a habitat invasibility assessment model: the case of Prosopis species in the dry zone of Myanmar. It is thought that most, if not all, control methods suitable for one species can be successfully applied to another.