The scientific name of the “Yerba de la Piedra”. Avataq Cultural Institute, Inukjuak, QC, Steward T (1738) Concerning the Virtues of the Star of the Earth. M.A. Often considered a symbiotic relationship, each perhaps contributes something to the whole organism. Of these combinations, approximately 1,500 are accepted at the species rank. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 16:298, Guarrera PM, Lucchese F, Medori S (2008) Ethnophytotherapeutical research in the high Molise region (Central-Southern Italy). Pharmacogn J 3:6–17, Garcia GH, Campos R, de Torres RA (1990) Antiherpetic activity of some Argentine medicinal plants. The antimicrobial activity of extracts of the lichen Cladonia foliacea and its (-)-usnic acid, atranorin, and fumarprotocetraric acid constituents. indicators of environmental contamination are indicated. Anthropological papers of the American Museum of Natural History 70. Berichte der Bayerischen Botanischen Gesellschaft 30:108–126, Schmull M, Dal-Forno M, Lücking R, et al. Notiziario [Società Lichenologica Italiana] 5:29–37, Goldie WH (1904) Maori medical lore. In this study their therapeutic uses and status as bio University of Washington Press, Seattle, WA, Hunn G (2005) Unpublished 1976-1980 ethnobotany field notes, Hunte P, Safi M, Macey A, Kerr GB (1975) Folk methods of fertility regulation; and the traditional birth attendant (the dai). Prov. two Gram positive (ATCC 29212 Enterococcus faecalis, ATCC 25923 Staphylococcus aureus) bacteria. Usnea (OOS-nay-uh or US-nay-uh) is a lichen, which is a symbiotic combination of an algae and a fungus. Lobaric acid and lobarstin, secondary metabolites derived from the antarctic lichenStereocaulon alpnum, exert various biological activities, including antitumor, anti-proliferation, anti-inflammation, and antioxidant activities. The preparation and utilisation of these plants is as varied as the plants themselves. I. Folklore and phytochemical screening. One hundred and sixteen native medicinal plants which were usual among people from Pampallakta (Peru) were reported along with local names, methods of administration and part of plant employed. Lichen News Bull Lichenol Soc Jpn 13:6–9, Osorio HS (1982) Contribution to the lichen flora of Uruguay XVII. Lichen samples Many lichens are known to have potent antibiotic properties, and many are edible. Syracuse University Press, New York, Hooper D (1937) Useful plants and drugs of Iran and Iraq. Collins, Auckland, MacIntyre D (1999) The role of Scottish native plants in natural dyeing and textiles. Korean J Pharmacogn 8:81–88, Leighton AL (1985) Wild plant use by the Woods Cree (Nihithawak) of east-central Saskatchewan. Syesis 6:193–220, Turner NJ (1998) Plant technology of first peoples in British Columbia. All rights reserved. John MacKay, Glasgow, Chanda S, Singh A (1971) A crude lichen drug (chharila) from India. In: Lynge B (ed) Studies on the lichen flora of Norway. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 2:47, Bussmann RW, Sharon D (2006) Traditional medicinal plant use in Loja province, Southern Ecuador. Traditional uses of lichens are part of the documented heritage of more than 100 indigenous tribes of North America. Manuscrito de Salamanca. University of Alaska Anchorage, Anchorage, AK, Garrett JT (2003) The Cherokee herbal: native plant medicine from the four directions. L’Imprimerie Royale, Paris, Densmore F (1939) Nootka and Quileute music. Cornell Univ Undergrad Res Program Biodivers 1:8–14, Bandoni AL, Mendiondo ME, Rondina RV, Coussio JD (1972) Survey of Argentine medicinal plants. Apud Salomonem Schouten, Amstelaedami, Linnaeus C (1753) Species plantarum. Random House, New York, Poudel P (2008) Medicinal plants of change VDC of Taplejung, Eastern Nepal. Analyses utilized national-scale lichen survey data, sensitivity ratings, and modeled deposition and climate data. Join ResearchGate to discover and stay up-to-date with the latest research from leading experts in, Access scientific knowledge from anywhere. The results suggest that detected compounds can be possible agents for using pharmaceutical purposes. relieve pain, and as expectorant, among others. Dev, Buffalo, NY, James R (1748) Dictionnaire universel de medecine. Int Lichenol Newsl 36:33–35, Hebda RJ, Turner NJ, Birchwater S et al (1996) Ulkatcho food and medicine plants. 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It’s difficult for us to know how this particular herb was used in European history. Lichens produce protective secondary metabolites that serve to deter herbivory and colonization by pathogens. Phylogenetically closely related KS domains predict not only similar PKS architecture but also similar cluster architecture. The species was reported to have hallucinogenic properties and chemical analyses suggest certain substances present that are shared with the hallucinogenic mushroom Psilocybe cubensis. Fitoterapia 66:447–461, Vestal PA, Schultes RE (1939) The economic botany of the Kiowa Indians, as it relates to the history of the tribe. Memoir Am Anthropol Assoc 44:5–10, Best E (1905) Maori medical lore. Fitoterapia 80:145–148, Molares S, Ladio A (2014) Medicinal plants in the cultural landscape of a Mapuche-Tehuelche community in arid Argentine Patagonia: an eco-sensorial approach. S Afr J Bot 77:741–754, De Candolle MAP (1816) Essai sur les proprieties médicales des plantes, compares avec leurs forms extérieures et leur classification naturelle. Most lichens in Kamojang geothermal area belong to Ascomycetes, only one Basidiomycetes such as Dictyonema sericeum (Sw.) which found at Kawah Manuk (Manuk crater) area. Because lichens are extremely sensitive to air pollution, their absence can be used as a measure of how much an area is polluted. These European uses started in the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries and arose from interpretations of Ancient Greek uses, as well as the application of the doctrine of signatures. thesis, Brigham Young University, USA, McClintock W (1910) The Old North Trail. Also, the elemental transfer rate from dried lichen to decoction was extremely element-specific, ranging from 2% for Cu to 95% for Zn. Health Benefits, Uses and Claims of Oakmoss. Philos Trans R Soc Lond 40:274–276, Hawksworth DL (2003) Hallucinogenic and toxic lichens. J. C. Jula, Cape Town, Smith AL (1921) Lichens. Bearded usnea is a lichen that grows on aging trees in forest areas across the Northern Hemisphere. B.C. Univ NM Bull Anthropol Ser 3:1–76, Wyman LC, Harris SK (1951) The ethnobotany of the Kayenta Navaho: an analysis of the John and Louisa Wetherill Ethnobotanical Collection. A test study on the lichen Cetraria islandica, Biosynthetic Gene Content of the ‘Perfume Lichens’ Evernia prunastri and Pseudevernia furfuracea, Physciosporin Suppresses the Proliferation, Motility and Tumourigenesis of Colorectal Cancer Cells, Ramalina calicaris (L.) Fr. (lichens) in ancient medicinal plant lore of India, Cross cultural ethnobotanical studies in Northeast India, Medicinal plants from Pampallakta: An andean community in Cuzco (Peru), Plants and animals used for fertility regulation in Korea, Antiherpetic activity of some Argentine medicinal plants, Lichens from the regions of Gümüşhane, Erzincan and Bayburt (Turkey), The Aymara Indians of the Lake Titicaca Plateau, Bolivia, The ethnobotany of the Bella Coola Indians of British Columbia, A preliminary survey of plants used in traditional medicine in the Grahamstown area, Materia Medica of the Bella Coola and neighboring tribes of British Columbia, Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians, Ethnobotany of the Tewa Indians, Smithonian Institution, The Ethnobotany of the Kayenta Navaho. University of California Archaeological Research Facility, USA, Milliken W, Miller RP, Pollard SR, Wandelli EV (1992) Ethnobotany of the Waimiri Atroari Indians of Brazil. Lungwort, also known as lungwort leaf or Pulmonaria officinalis, is a natural plant that has been used around the world for a variety of respiratory ailments, including coughs, colds, bronchial detoxification and catarrhal concerns.Lungwort is found in native damp habitats and coastal areas in Europe, Asia, North America, and Africa. The Montana Historical Society, Helena, MT, Hartley D, Sandys F, Wollaston F (1737) Another case of a person bit by a mad-dog. Mey. B. ex Flot., Sarcogyne fallax H. Besides being fascinating in their own right, lichens have medicinal uses, some food value, use as oils in perfumes, and are indicators of air pollution. Before a certain time period all lichens were referred to as the same herb, so it’s hard to distinguish how usnea in particular was used. Antioxidant activity was determined by using DPPH method. University of Utah Press, Salt Lake City, UT, Pieroni A (2000) Medicinal plants and food medicines in the folk traditions of the upper Lucca Province, Italy. In this regard, it is estimated that a significant number of substances will be discovered in the coming years, taking into consideration that only a low proportion has been analyzed from available natural sources. 2006). J Anthropol Inst Great Brit Ireland 15:187–209, Kiringe JW (2008) A survey of traditional health remedies used by the Maasai of Southern Kaijiado District. All rights reserved. Unlike most modern antibiotics which disrupt the structure of a cell, this lichen prevents the metabolism of gram positive bacteria such as Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, and Mycobacterium tuberculosis.. The medicinal properties may have been first known to the natives of Iceland; according to Borrichius, the Danish apothecaries were acquainted with the medicinal applications of Iceland moss in 1673. The medicinal use of lichens can be traced back to the 18th dynasty (1700-1800 BC) when Evernia furfuracea (L.) Mann or (Parmeliaceae) was first used as a drug. Indian J Surg 38:34–39, Parkinson J, Marshall W (1640) Theatrum botanicum. The specific indications were for infections with signs of heat and dampness: redness, yellow pus, fast pulse, etc. 2006;Rezanka and Dembitsky 2006;Bessadóttir 2014). Hale. N. M. Publ. J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 4:22, Prance GT (1972) Ethnobotanical notes from Amazonian Brazil. Landes Industrie Comptoir, Weimar, Aston Philander L (2011) An ethnobotany of Western Cape Rasta bush medicine. Lichens from Black Sea Region in Turkey, DETERMINATION OF BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES (ANTIBACTERIAL, ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIPROLIFERATIVE) AND METABOLITE ANALYSIS OF SOME LICHEN SPECIES FROM TURKEY, Is there a risk of trace element contamination in herbal preparations? thesis, University of Calgary, Canada, Smith A (1888) A contribution to South African Materia Medica. It was found that the plants with highest use consensus used for digestive, respiratory, cardio-vascular, analgesic-anti-inflammatory, obstetric-gynaecological and genito-unrinary complaints, have the highest frequencies of cites reporting flavor; and those with the highest frequencies relating to digestive, analgesic-anti-inflammatory and cultural syndromes present the highest frequencies of aroma. Ph.D. thesis, Université des Sciences et Techniques du Languedoc, France, Laxinamu J, Tang Y, Bao H-Y, Bau T (2013) Chemical constituents from, Layard DP (1757) An essay on the nature, causes, and cure of the contagious distemper among the horned cattle in these kingdoms. © 2018, Society for Indonesian Biodiversity. Université Laval, Canada, Compton BD (1993) Upper North Wakashan and Southern Tsimshian ethnobotany: the knowledge and usage of plants and fungi among the Oweekeno, Hanaksiala (Kitlope and Kemano), Haisla (Kitamaat) and Kitasoo Peoples of the Central and North Coasts of British Columbia. In addition, total As and Cd were <1mgkg(-1)dw and Pb mean concentration was 9.25mgkg(-1)dw. After the separation and the identification Part III. Usnea has numerous medicinal, as well as food uses, which I will get to in a moment. ... Antibacterial activity of C. islandica against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. progenes, P. aeruginosa and P. vulgaris may explain why it uses in traditional medicine to treat wounds, edemas, uterine cysts, nephritis and some respiratory diseases such as tuberculosis, asthma and whooping cough. These risks were further characterized in relation to geography, species of conservation concern, number of species affected, recovery timeframes, climate, and effects on interdependent biota, nutrient cycling, and ecosystem services. Cortex Consulting, School of Environmental Studies, and Coasts Under Stress, Victoria, Canada, Turner NJ, Bouchard R, Kennedy DID (1980) Ethnobotany of the Okanagan-Colville Indians of British Columbia and Washington. Usnea is a type of lichen that grows on trees. et Rond. However, they did not show a great difference between their antibacterial activities. Not affiliated Elliot Stock, London, Tshiteya RM (2007) Herbal medicines for common ailments: a quick reference guide. Popular Book Depot, Bombay, Nagendra Prasada P, Ranjit Singh AJA, Narayanan LM, Natarajan CR (1996) Ethnobotany of the Kanikkars of South Tamilnadu—I. Their high average age does not necessarily endanger the tisanerie of tomorrow. The most common human use of lichens is for dye, but they have also been used for medicine, food and other purposes. Ethnic uses were recorded during twelve field trips, each of roughly 15 days in three consecutive years, through direct questionnaires administered to 190 respondents. Occas Pap BC Prov Mus 24:1–165, Turner NJ, Thompson LC, Thompson MT, York AZ (1990) Thompson ethnobotany: knowledge and usage of plants by the Thompson Indians of British Columbia. J Ethnopharmacol 138:578–594, Azenha G, Iturriaga T, Michelangeli FI, Rodriguez E (1998) Ethnolichenology, biochemical activity, and biochemistry of Amazonian lichen species. In: Hoffmann GF et al (eds) Mémoires sur l’utilité des lichens dans la médecine et dans les arts. Here we present an edited and updated version of that list. Our study sets epiphorellic acid as a promising hit for the development of more effective RecA inhibitors. Nyl., Placodiopsis tenella (Nyl.) Background Medicinal Actions: Antibacterial, Antibiotic, Anti-Fungal, Anti-Parasitic, Anti-Septic, Bitter, Vulnerary, Immune Tonic. It includesa a total of 5,421 species in 733 genera, with an additional 41 subspecies, 45 varieties, and 3 forms. John Murray, London, De Grey T (1639) The compleat horse-man, and expert ferrier. US Agency for Int. Lichen species containing some medical properties are Bulbothrix, Cladonia and Usnea. Washington State University, Pullman, WA, Gioanetto F (1993) Aspetti etnofarmacologici e nutrizionali dei licheni. Lichen species were collected from different provinces of Bolu, Turkey, and extracted with methanol and acetone. J Ethnopharmacol 105:55–63, Lee SJ (1966) Korean folk medicine. Smith, Elder, London, Withering W (1801) A systematic arrangement of British plants. Ediciones Universidad, Spain, Luyken JA (1809) Tentamen historiae lichenum in genere cui accedunt primae lineae distributionis novae. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid 7:511–548, Byg A, Salick J, Law W (2010) Medicinal plant knowledge among lay people in five Eastern Tibet villages. Econ Bot 14:84–104, Beaglehole E, Beaglehole P (1935) A note on Hopi sorcery. Scientific Publishers, Jodhpur, India, pp 292–298, Natale AD, Pollio A (2012) A forgotten collection: the Libyan ethnobotanical exhibits (1912-14) by A. Trotter at the Museum O. Kenya Ethnobot Res Appl 4:61–74, Kokwaro JO (1976) Medicinal plants of East Africa. Oltenia - Studii şi Comunicări Ştiinţele Naturii 29:115–119, Yavuz M, Çobanoğlu G (2010) Ethnological uses and etymology of the word Usnea in Ebubekir Razi’s “Liber Almansoris”. More than 300 species of lichens have traditional uses: Primarily for medicine, ... A lichen is an simbiont organism; the symbiosis is realized between a fungus (Ascomycetes or Bazidiomycetes) and an algae or a cyanobacteria, who grow together. Lichens are used in traditional medicine by cultures across the world, particularly in temperate and arctic regions. J Ethnopharmacol 103:109–119, Felger RS, Moser MB (1985) People of the desert and sea: ethnobotany of the Seri Indians. Hafner, New York, Upreti DK, Chatterjee S (2007) Significance of lichens and their secondary metabolites: a review. Ethno Med 6:103–109, Yavuz M (2013) Lichens in the prescriptions of Pliny the Elder. Anthropol Pap Univ Alaska 6:16–36, Pardanani DS, DeLima RJ, Rao RV et al (1976) Study of the effects of speman on semen quality in oligospermic men. Kinetic data were confirmed by molecular modelling binding predictions which shows that epiphorellic acid is expected to bind the ssDNA site into the L2 loop of RecA protein. Onderstepoort J Vet Sci Anim Ind 9:631–666, Esimone CO, Adikwu MU (1999) Antimicrobial activity and cytotoxicity of. Int J Appl Biol Pharm Technol 2:14–18, Ray J (1686) Historia plantarum. Hafner, New York, Rink, Lindorff JFT (1856) Help to the patients. It is utilized in the treatment of snake bites, cuts, treatment of inflammatory gingivitis, and treatment of sore throat. J Ethnopharmacol 70:235–273, Pollan M (2001) The botany of desire: a plant’s eye view of the world. steps, the samples were washed, dried and then extracted using an acetone solvent. The elemental concentrations in decoctions were significantly lower than those measured in raw materials, dropping down to levels of negligible health concern. Econ Bot 26:221–237, Prasad R (2013) Ayurveda therapeutics workshop—Explore traditional recipes from kottakkal arya vaidya sala. X. parietina grown on PDA and G-LBM media decreased HeLa or MCF-7 cancer cells viability with IC50 values of about 8 μg mL⁻¹, while C. pusilla grown on G-LBM medium showed the highest potency in decreasing MCF-7 (7.29 μg mL⁻¹), PC-3 (7.96 μg mL⁻¹) and HeLa (6.57 μg mL⁻¹) cancer cells viability. The chemical analyses made for every species lead us from empirism to a firts stage of rationality. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin, pp 491–503, Müller J (1881) Lichenologische Beiträge XIV. Herbal products are also obtained in regional shop. Smithsonian contributions to anthropology 7. Purpose: I love it when I find out that a plant (or lichen in this case) that I’ve seen for years is beneficial in some way. Ph.D. thesis, University of Jaén, Spain, Fink B (1906) Lichens: their economic role. J Polynesian Soc 14:1–23, Bhattarai NK (1999) Medicinal plants and the Plant Research Division of Nepal. Cite as. Bull Public Mus Milwaukee 4:327–525, Smith HH (1933) Ethnobotany of the Forest Potawatomi Indians. Mem Am Anthropol Assoc 48, Tychsen N (1799) Sammenlignende Forsøg med Lichen nivalis og Lichen islandicus. J R Asiatic Soc Bengal Sci 13:75–113, Biswas K (1956) Common medicinal plants of Darjeeling and the Sikkim Himalayas. ... Roeder E. Medicinal plants in Europe containing pyrrolizidine alkaloids. Botanical Series 9(3). J Ethnopharmacol 15:169–193, Davis EW, Yost JA (1983) Novel hallucinogens from eastern Ecuador. Lichens are organisms that are formed from a synthesis of an algae or cyanobacteria, or both, that form colonies within the mycelium or filaments of a fungus. The Sydenham Society, London, Afolayan AJ, Grierson DS, Kambizi L et al (2002) In vitro antifungal activity of some South African medicinal plants. The phylogeny includes 15 genomes of lichenized fungi and all fungal PKSs with known functions from the MIBiG database. Bear, Rochester, VT, Garth TR (1953) Atsugewi ethnobotany. A total of 206 taxa, of which 2 are subspecies and 4 are variety, from 102 different stations in the Turkish provinces of Gümüşhane, Erzincan and Bayburt. Lichens in traditional medicine are most commonly used for treating wounds, skin disorders, respiratory and digestive issues, and obstetric and gynecological concerns. In: Tribes of California. Nye samling af det Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskabs Skrifter 5:372–390. In: Abdin MZ, Abrol YP (eds) Traditional systems of medicine. Furthermore, using immunoblot analysis, we investigated the expression of cell cycle and apoptosis-related marker genes and found a significant downregulation of the apoptosis regulator B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and upregulation of the cleaved form of the poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP), a DNA repair and apoptosis regulator. ... Antibacterial results of B. capillaris supported the traditional uses of B. capillaris in the remedy of diarrhea, vaginal discharge and skin abrasions. und ihre Vorkommen in der Alten Welt. They synthesise a wide range of secondary metabolites to defend against biotic and abiotic stresses (Nash, 2008). Museum of Anthropology, University of Northern Colorado, Greenley, CO, Merriam CH (1966) Ethnographic notes on California Indian Tribes. Econ Bot 2:15–45, Lokar LC, Poldini L (1988) Herbal remedies in the traditional medicine of the Venezia Giulia Region (North East Italy). The lichen has an important place in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM). Lichens in traditional medicine are most commonly used for treating wounds, skin disorders, respiratory and digestive issues, and obstetric and gynecological concerns. The acetone extracts of 12 plants used in folkloric medicine in the Eastern Cape of South Africa, were investigated for their in vitro antimycotic activity against five fungi using the agar dilution method. Knowledge of these medicinal uses is available to us because of the contributions of traditional knowledge holders in these cultures. Ph.D. thesis, University of Barcelona, Spain, Nadkarni KM, Nadkarni AK (1955) Indian materia medica. According to the ancient botanist Theophrastus (Book III of his History of Plants), in the IIIrd century before Jesus Christ, lichen emanated from bark. Sumptibus J.T. Enter our competition by posting your ideas in the … In: Linnaeus C (ed) Amoenitates Academicæ. Introducing an oceanic, volcanic and tropical island, leads us to its plant and human inhabitants. Liken Türünün Antibakteriyel ve Antioksidan Aktivitesi. J Ethnopharmacol 13:89–103, Hu S, Kong YC, But PPH (1980) An enumeration of the Chinese Materia Medica. In: Linnaeus C (ed) Amoenitates Academicæ. Differences observed in raw materials were not observed anymore in the corresponding decoctions. Also, these organisms present antitumor action inhibiting different types of cancer. Bull Mus North Ariz 15:1–120, Willemet R (1787) Lichénographie Économique, ou Histoire des Lichens Utiles dans la Médecine et dans les Arts. UBC, Vancouver, Marshall AG (1977) Nez Perce Social Groups: an ecological interpretation. Southwest Museum, Los Angeles, CA, Dampier G, Sloane H (1698) Part of a letter from Mr. George Dampier. This work aims at exploring the potential toxicity of herbal preparations derived by the lichen Cetraria islandica due to trace element contamination, testing whether different concentrations may be observed, depending on the origin of the raw material. Mus. They have been used for both their secondary metabolites and their storage carbohydrates. The Tarahumar of Mexico: Their Environment and Material Culture. thesis, University of Montana, USA, Hart J (1976) Montana—native plants and early peoples. Sumtu & literis Laurentii Salvii, Holmiæ, pp 293–310, Stubbs RD (1966) An investigation of the edible and medicinal plants used by the Flathead Indians. Magn., Immersaria cuproatra (Nyl.) Rep Bur Am Ethnol Secr Smithson Inst 45:23–296, Thell A, Feuerer T, Kärnefelt I et al (2004) Monophyletic groups within the Parmeliaceae identified by ITS rDNA, β-tubulin and GADPH sequences. Five “most promising” compounds are discussed in-depth, also considering the possibility of obtaining sufficient amounts for further investigations. Nat Prod Res Dev 17:340–343, Gabriel L, White HE (1954) Food and medicines of the Okanakanes. Botanical Museum, Cambridge, MA, Vitto LAD, Petenatti EM, Petenatti ME (1997) Recursos herbolarios de San Luis (República Argentina) primera parte: plantas nativas. Royal Botanical Gardens, Kew, England, Modenesi P (2009) Skull lichens: a curious chapter in the history of phytotherapy. In: Schultes RE, Reis S (eds) Ethnobotany: evolution of a discipline. Allertonia 5:347–424, Whiting AF (1939) Ethnobotany of the Hopi. Native American medicinal uses of ferns can be categorized into five major groups, seen below. Cabotayud & Rambold., Lecidea berengeriana (Massal.) But when critical loads are exceeded, how can the accompanying ecological risk be quantified? with S. Crawford, June 29, Siegfried EV (1994) Ethnobotany of the northern Cree of Wabasca/Desmarais. extracts of lichen samples collected from two different locations in Bolu had antibacterial activity on only Gram positive E. faecalis and J Ethnobiol Ethnomed 8:47, Ju Y, Zhuo J, Liu B, Long C (2013) Eating from the wild: diversity of wild edible plants used by Tibetans in Shangri-la region, Yunnan, China. str. B. capillaris exhibited broad spectrum of antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. pp 27-80 | Over 10 million scientific documents at your fingertips. out with R. calicaris samples collected from Bolu-Aladağlar location, which indicated relatively higher antibacterial activity by using Bryologist 102:462–544, Hart J (1974) Plant taxonomy of the Salish and Kootenai Indians of Western Montana. We showed that selected acetone extracts demonstrated a strong antimicrobial and anticancer effects that suggests that aposymbiotically cultured lichen-forming fungi can be a source of antibacterial and antiproliferative compounds.