The diagnosis of infectious mononucleosis (mono) is usually made based on the symptoms, findings in a physical examination, and blood tests. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. It’s also called mono or “the kissing disease.” You … Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. Your tonsils become swollen and develop a whitish-yellow covering. Take them only to relieve pain or a fever. AskMayoExpert. Symptoms and signs include chills, followed by fever, sore throat (often severe), enlarged tonsils, swollen lymph glands especially in the neck, muscle aches, headaches and severe fatigue. Treatment mainly involves taking care of yourself, such as getting enough rest, eating a healthy diet and drinking plenty of fluids. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. You may take over-the-counter pain relievers to treat a fever or sore throat. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. Aug. 16, 2018. What, if anything, seems to improve your symptoms? Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is characterized by a triad of fever, tonsillar pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy [ 1 ]. Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is a contagious illness typically caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). The disease is sometimes known as glandular fever, because it causes lymph glands to swell up. Infectious mononucleosis should be suspected in patients with typical symptoms and signs. Your doctor may recommend a gradual exercise program to help you rebuild your strength as you recover. Many people are already immune to the Epstein-Barr virus because of exposure as children. The sore throat slowly gets worse. He or she will look for signs such as swollen lymph nodes, tonsils, liver or spleen, and consider how these signs relate to the symptoms you describe. Infectious mononucleosis. Mono is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or similar viruses, but strep throat and some other conditions may need to be ruled out. Both EBV and CMV are members of the herpes virus family: In the U.S., most adults between 35 and 40 years old have been infected with the Epstein-Barr virus. Patient’s description of sore throat, the main symptom of streptococcal pharyngitis, along with fever and swollen lymph nodes provide reason for this differential diagnosis. Fever is an elevation of the body temperature above 101.3 °F. This content does not have an Arabic version. Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education. Though aspirin is approved for use in children older than age 3, children and teenagers recovering from chickenpox or flu-like symptoms should never take aspirin. Infectious mononucleosis is caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV, human herpesvirus type 4) and is characterized by fatigue, fever, pharyngitis, and lymphadenopathy. A variant of mononucleosis that is milder than EBV infectious mononucleosis is caused by the cytomegalovirus (CMV). How long should I stay home? The more rest you get, the sooner you should recover. © 1998-2020 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). In children younger than 4 years, the infection is most often asymptomatic, but they may present with atypical symptoms (eg, irritability, failure to thrive, abdominal pain due to mesenteric adenopathy or splenomegaly, upper respiratory infection [URI] symptoms). Besides getting plenty of rest, these steps can help relieve symptoms of mononucleosis: Take an over-the-counter pain reliever. Merck Manual Professional Version. The content of this site is published by the site owner(s) and is not a statement of advice, opinion, or information pertaining to The Ohio State University. Clinical manifestations and treatment of Epstein-Barr virus infection. Infectious Diseases A-Z: When a kiss is more than a kiss, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. EBV antibody tests are not usually needed to diagnose infectious mononucleosis. Here's some information to help you get ready for your appointment and know what to expect from your doctor. Have your symptoms been continuous or occasional? In healthy individuals, a need for medical intervention may not be necessary unless the individual is pregnant or has a lowered immunity (Contopoulos-Ioannidis, Maldonado, & Montoya et al., 2013). IM typically manifests in adolescents and young adults as a febrile illness with sore throat and enlarged lymph nodes. Aronson MD, et al. Mononucleosis is an infectious illness that’s usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). Mono refers to the symptoms of … For some people, … It’s most common in teens and young adults. Children and teens can have the virus for 4 to 7 weeks before symptoms show up. This is because aspirin has been linked to Reye's syndrome, a rare but potentially life-threatening condition, in such children. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. Allow me to break this a little. Use pain relievers such as acetaminophen (Tylenol, others) or ibuprofen (Advil, Motrin IB, others) as needed. Mononucleosis, also known as \"mono,\" is an infectious disease that is usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (a herpes virus). How can I best manage them together? Infectious mononucleosis may begin slowly with fatigue, a general ill feeling, headache, and sore throat. It has been estimated that approximately 50% of students have had mono by the time they enroll in college. Patients presenting with fever and swollen lymph glands with complaints of sore throat and recent fatigue provide rationale for this differential diagnosis. Infectious mononucleosis is a clinical syndrome caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) that is particularly common in adolescents and children. When can I return to strenuous activities and contact sports? Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever, can emerge as a result of infection with EBV, or herpes virus 4. If you suspect you have mononucleosis, see your family doctor. Infectious mononucleosis is an infection usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus. Antibiotics don't work against viral infections such as mono. What, if anything, appears to worsen your symptoms? The virus is dissipated through saliva, which is … Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is a viral syndrome resulting from an acute infection with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), commonly known as, Mono or Glandular fever or Kissing disease. Other than the most likely cause, what are other possible causes for my symptoms or condition? Are there brochures or other printed material that I can take with me? The causative agent of infectious mononucleosis is "Epstein-Barr virus"(known as EBV or human herpes virus 4 [HHV-4]). Infectious mononucleosis in adults and adolescents. Mononucleosisis an illness that affects teenagers and young adults, mainly ages 14 to 30, but can occur in children and older adults. The virus spreads through saliva, which is why it's sometimes called "kissing disease." What are the likeliest causes of my symptoms or condition? The virus that causes mono is transmitted through saliva, so you can get it through kissing, but you can also be exposed through a cough or sneeze, or by sharing a glass or food utensils with someone who has mono. But plan on staying home from school and other activities until you're feeling better. Patients presenting with fever and swollen lymph glands with complaints of sore throat and recent fatigue provide rationale for this differential diagnosis. Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Other viruses can also cause mononucleosis. Rochester, Minn.: Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research; 2014. Pharyngitis is caused by swelling in the back of the throat (pharynx) between the tonsils and the (larynx).The most common bacteria to cause pharyngitis is group A streptococcus, commonly known as Strep throat (NIH MedlinePlus, 2014). It typically occurs in teenagers, but you can get it … Returning to your usual schedule too soon can increase the risk of a relapse. Abstract Infectious mononucleosis is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and most commonly affects young adults from 15 to 35 years of age. This site complies with the HONcode standard for trustworthy health information: verify here. Recent advances in the understanding of infectious mononucleosis: are prospects improved for treatment or control? Infectious mononucleosis (IM) is usually a self-limiting infection, most often caused by Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is a human herpes virus. In some cases, your child’s doctor may also order tests to confirm a diagnosis, including a white blood cell count, heterophile antibody test or monospot test. These medicines have no antiviral properties. Infectious mononucleosis, also known as glandular fever, is an infection usually caused by the Epstein–Barr virus. The most common are: 1. In young adults, the disease often results in fever, sore throat, enlarged lymph nodes in the neck, and tiredness. Be patient with your body as it fights the infection. The diagnosis is made by accurate assessment of clinical, hematologic and serologic manifestations of the illness. The classic symptoms of this illness tend to occur more frequently among teenagers, especially those 15 to 17 years old, and in adults in their 20s. This topic focuses on IM caused by EBV. Antibiotics don't work against viral infections such as mono. Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. If you have mononucleosis, you don't necessarily need to be quarantined. Am J Med Sci . (Contopoulos-Ioannidis, D.G., Maldonado, Y., & Montoya, J.G., 2013), If you have trouble accessing this page and need to request an alternate format, contact Mononucleosis typically occurs between early childhood and early adulthood and is ordinarily self-limiting as the patient develops EBV-specific immunity. To help you avoid the risk of rupturing your spleen, your doctor may suggest that you wait about one month before returning to vigorous activities, heavy lifting, roughhousing or contact sports. Epstein-Barr virus and infectious mononucleosis. Infectious mononucleosis (“mono”) is caused by an Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infection. Accessed Oct. 26, 2015. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Infectious mononucleosis is usually diagnosed based on symptoms and a physical exam. Aronson MD, et al. The sore throat slowly gets worse. Infectious mononucleosis differential diagnosis, treatment options, and images at Epocrates Online, the leading provider of drug and disease decision support tools. Mononucleosis can last weeks, keeping you at home as you recover. Infectious mononucleosis (mono) is often called the kissing disease. There's no specific therapy available to treat infectious mononucleosis. Rupture of the spleen results in severe bleeding and is a medical emergency. The lymph nodes in the neck are frequently swollen and painful (NIH PubMed Health, 2012). There's no specific therapy available to treat infectious mononucleosis. Without a doubt, you'll need to take it easy for a while. Infectious mononucleosis. Typical symptoms of infectious mononucleosis usually appear four to six weeks after you get infected with EBV. The virus spreads through saliva, which is why it’s sometimes called “kissing disease.” Mono occurs most often in teens and young adults (NIH MedlinePlus, 2014). Your doctor is likely to ask you a number of questions, including: Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Most people recover in two to four weeks; however, feeling tired may last for … Some may develop a measles-like rash, jaundice and tiny spots resembling bruises inside the mouth. Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. This disease comprises three main manifestations, such as fever, adenopathy, and pharyngitis. What websites do you recommend? At best, the Monospot test may indicate that a person has a typical case of infectious mononucleosis, but does not confirm the presence of EBV infection. Mononucleosis is not considered a serious illness, but its symptoms may be severe enough to prevent a person from engaging in normal activities for several weeks. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is, as its name well says, a virus and the source of infectious mononucleosis. By 40 years of age, 90% of individuals are infected. Symptoms of mono include. Mono, or infectious mononucleosis, refers to a group of symptoms usually caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. (Kane, K.S.,  Ryder, J.B., Johnson, R.A., Braden, H.P., & Stratigos, 2009). Infectious mononucleosis (called \"mono\" for short) is caused by the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a virus that affects nearly everybody at some point. For young people, having mononucleosis will mean some missed activities — classes, team practices and parties. Use caution when giving aspirin to children or teenagers. The diagnosis 'infectious mononucleosis' is primarily used when the syndrome is caused by EBV; 'mononucleosis syndrome' should be used when the syndrome is caused by a non-EBV aetiology. Most Americans have had an EBV infection by age 40 years. Symptoms may develop slowly and may not all occur at the same time.These symptoms include: 1. extreme fatigue 2. fever 3. sore throat 4. head and body aches 5. swollen lymph nodes in the neck and armpits 6. swollen liver or spleen or both 7. rashEnlarged spleen and a swollen liver are less common symptoms. Neither text, nor links to other websites, is reviewed or endorsed by The Ohio State University. Preparing a list of questions will help you make the most of your time with your doctor.