A perfect accompaniment for turkey, mashed potatoes, and stuffing. If you appreciate this, it would be great if you show this by making a small donation! I will post the results later. Cats love it. The garum in the bottle you see in the picture on the left is made like this. The term colatura di alici translates from Italian to "anchovy drippings," which is about as straightforward of a product description as you can get. Liquamen was a similar preparation, and at times they were synonymous. Sho was somewhat skeptical of the reverence paid to colatura, but when we tasted it side by side with a premium Vietnamese fish sauce, he begrudgingly conceded that they are both delicious but vastly different in flavor. Then either cook the bottle or jat with sodium carbonate, or rinse with water to which a little sulfite is added (½ tsp sodium for 1 liter/2 cups water) and a pinch of citric acid. The production of garum and Asian fish sauce is virtually the same as well. In the Netherlands there is quite a lack of Mediterranean sun. During that time, the anchovies exude liquid that will age and become colatura. It is used in much the same way as our Worcestershire Sauce or Maggi: one adds it in small quantities to a dish. Like other aged products—Parmesan, dried scallops, jamón, Scotch whiskey, or dry-aged beef—colatura is not cheap. Put this mixture in the yoghurt-maker, in which it must ferment for three to five days at a temperature of 40 °C (104 °F). Condiment, about 7½ decilitres (3 cups); preparation in advance 7 minutes; preparation 60 minutes. Learn more on our Terms of Use page. There are two ways to acquire fish sauce. Before that, he cooked for years at restaurants in Boston and Chicago, working at Rialto, Clio, and Parachute, where he was a sous chef. What you get in return is a massive flavor payload. There is only so much salt you can dissolve in water. Always take care that the spoon which is used to take garum out of the pot is absolutely clean, and when it is poured out of a bottle, wipe the neck with a clean cloth. If you see something not so nice, please, report an inappropriate comment. Garum sauce: ancient Rome's 'ketchup' becomes a modern-day secret ingredient Also known as colatura di alici, the centuries-old condiment of … We reserve the right to delete off-topic or inflammatory comments. Real garum is not made with boiled fish but with fish that has been fermented in the heat of the Mediterranean sun. The Italian fish sauce Colatura di Alici is said to very closely approximate garum. Making garum, as it was called then, is simple. These products are also produced in much the same way, by layering anchovy fillets and salt in wooden barrels, and then setting them aside in a temperature-controlled environment to ferment for a long, long time. Make sure that during the last straining turn the garum has cooled to room temperature. Aging ties up inventory, takes up space, and reduces yield. These are put in a pot with salt, and after two months the liquid is garum. On this page a recipe to make your own fish sauce. Colatura is an aged Italian fish sauce you need to try. They added this to dishes for savor and umami. The fish are cooked to a pulp. Links refer to available editions. The Worcestershire variety became popular in the 1840s and is a legacy of the British rule of the Indian sub-continent. The finished garum does not smell overly fishy, but during the cooking process your kitchen will be pervaded with a penetrating fish smell. 35/36. Like traditionally made, high quality Southeast Asian-style fish sauce, colatura is made with just two ingredients: anchovies and salt. 2½ Tbsp dried oregano There are several Latin sources that describe making garum. Garum is the liquid that remains after pickling and fermenting fish. A fermented fish sauce called garum was a staple of Greco-Roman cuisine and of the Mediterranean economy of the Roman Empire, and the use of some similar fermented anchovy sauces in Europe, can be traced back to the 17th century. Some comments may be held for manual review. Fish sauce is referred to as nam pla in Thailand, teuk trei in Cambodia, nam pa in Laos, patis in the Philippines, and ngan bya yay in Burma. The same goes for the salt. But more fun is experimenting with home-made garum. 1 Tbsp dried mint The smell really is not bad at all. To make garum, the innards -- the guts -- of fish (whitebait, anchovies, mackerel, tuna, etc.) This is brought to the boil, and then strained after cooling until the liquid is clear. In Geoponica (edition T. Owen, see bibliography, XX, 46), cited extensively by Faas (Around the Roman Table, see bibliography), five manners of making garum are described. Astute students of ancient culinary history will have noticed, however, that the cookery book attributed to Apicius tends to use the term liquamen when referring to fish sauce, rather than garum. 2 pounds small fish (smelt, sprat, anchovy, sardine. Rinse the fish under running water, leave them intact (do not remove gills, innards or whatever). The garum fish sauce was a staple of Roman cuisine. were stacked between layers of salt and herbs and left in the sun for several months. I love Southeast Asian fish sauce, and in no way do I think that colatura should be used in place of it, because they taste completely different, while being made from the same basic ingredients. As mentioned earlier, the anchovies are left to ferment, release liquid, and age for up to three years. When I bring garum-added deviled eggs to parties, they always disappear. First use a coarse strainer or colander to remove all the larger bits and pieces. Oyster sauce. The colatura is then bottled up for sale. It's hard to describe how deeply, intensely delicious colatura is, but it's salty and tastes of the sea, but it's not fishy. Comments can take a minute to appear—please be patient! Or you could put colatura center-stage, and make one of the easiest weeknight pasta dishes ever, spaghetti con la colatura di alici. Quicker garum. Most modified garum recipes recommend boiling fish and water and straining the resulting mixture. The ‘fast and cheap’ garum is the recipe which is found below: brine and fish go in an earthenware pot with oregano. Then there are the wooden barrels, as well as the ambient air and environments that are all also different. And so we have. The fish must be fermented for at least 5 – 7 days (depending on volume and size of fish) and a month is better, much better. The most valuable garum was produced in Spain and imported by sea in amphorae which bore the manufacturer's trademark and year of production. He grew up in Rome, and is a die-hard fan of pasta, pizza al taglio, and AS Roma. That said, if you like the umami punch of supermarket Southeast Asian-style fish sauce, you will definitely be into colatura. Fish sauce (found in Asian supermarkets) is the modern equivalent. Fifteen pounds of fresh, whole Norwegian mackerel, and 12 pounds of sea salt have been combined in a clean, sturdy, sealable, 5-gallon painter’s bucket. If the concentration is higher than 40%, there will be salt crystals in the liquid even at boiling point. In my recipe I start with 30% salt, but because of the reduction the concentration of salt will become higher. It is no use adding these to the strained garum, that liquid is saturated. Garum, the fish-based saucy condiment ubiquitous in ancient Roman cookery, shows up in many places, such as the epigrams of Martial, the scientific treatises of Pliny, and the medicinal writings of Galen. Garum is one of the basic ingredients in the cuisine of Roman antiquity. It's way cheaper to produce a large batch of Jack cheese, which only needs to age for a couple of months, than a clothbound cheddar that sits in a cheese cave for over a year. Recipe for Garum or liquamen, the Roman fish sauce Well, it's now time to round out this savory marine trilogy (don't worry, as with Star Wars and superhero movie franchises, there will be plenty of room for more entries in our expanded salty seafood universe) with a shout-out to another fishy Italian delicacy, colatura di alici. When preparing an authentic Roman dish, this sauce is a necessary ingredient, especially when using recipes from De Re Coquinaria. This recipe is inspired by the one J.M. Our attempt to make garum the traditional, slow way has officially begun. You’ll find that it’s not bad at all! 3. Alternatively: Go shop your local Asian market. Around the Roman Table: Food and Feasting in Ancient Rome, Apicius: A Critical Edition with an Introduction and English Translation, The Roman Cookery Book: A Critical Translation of The Art of Cooking, For Use In The Study And The Kitchen. Do not be put off by the revolting mess in the cooking pan; the end result will be a clear, amber-coloured liquid with an intriguing smell. Other cuisines that use fermented fish sauce include Thai (nam pla), Vietnamese (nuoc-mam), Cambodian (nuoc-mam and nuoc-mam-gau-ca), Laotian (nam pla), Philippine (patis), Indonesian (ketjab-ikan), and Malaysian (budu). It was used in many meals for cooking or as a table condiment, a little bit like ketchup or mayonnaise today. There are historic recipes online that call for boiling fish with spices and dried herbs plus some vinegar but garum was also a fermented fish-based condiment. © Copyright 2002–2020 Christianne Muusers - 5. Keep the garum in sterilized glass jars or bottles in the refrigerator. Following widespread recognition of its ability to impart a savory umami flavor to dishes, it has been embraced globally by chefs and home cooks. Worcestershire sauce Vs Garum. The Romans used the whole fish, or just the innards or even only the blood of the fish to make the sauce. I recently picked up a bottle of colatura when I paid a visit to the Bronx warehouse headquarters of Gustiamo, an online purveyor of specialty Italian products. 1. Sasha spent two years at America's Test Kitchen where he created and tested recipes. Once Nettuno's tasters deem that the colatura that has risen above the weights is ready to go, they tap a hole in the bottom of the terzigno, and the colatura drains through the barrel, passing through the layers of anchovies, which provides one last boost of flavor to the fish sauce, while naturally filtering it in the process. Roman cooks placed great emphasis on sauces and flavors, but none was more ubiquitous than garum–fish sauce. One can buy Eastern fish sauce, like Vietnamese Nuoc Mam or Thai Nam Pla. At room temperature that is about 30% (300 gram salt in 1 liter water), in boiling water 40%. It was made with solely the innards of the tuna, including blood and gills. The very best garum, according to the Geoponica, is called haimatum. Garum is spiced fish sauce that was prized by the ancients during Roman times. You may have noticed that we have been on a bit of a seafood umami pantry ingredient kick of late, starting with Sho's deep dive on "the Parmesan of the sea," bottarga, followed by my tribute to one of the greatest condiments of all time, XO sauce. A lot has been preserved from the ancient Romans, but unfortunately, flavours and smells have not. Ancient Roman and modern fish sauces are probably identical in preparation, color, and taste. Fresh fish and salt in some proportion (recipes vary widely from 5:1 to 2:1) are layered in barrels, clay pits or earthenware crocks. Wunderlich reminds us that it is absolutely vital that the amount of salt is sufficient. Oyster sauce can easily replace fish sauce in most stir-fry recipes, as it has a similar … He also loves a good (or bad, depending on who you ask) food pun. Bring to the boil, let boil for fifteen minutes. Crush the fish even more with a wooden spoon; continue boiling until the liquid starts to thicken, about twenty minutes. van Winter gives in her book Van soeter cokene (see bibliography), pp. How was garum made? Garum actually originates from ancient Greece and the word garum comes from the Greek word garos or garon.. Garum was made from the intestines of small fishes. For their colatura, Nettuno guts and fillets local anchovies and layers them by hand with Sicilian sea salt in small chestnut barrels called terzigni, a term that refers to their diminutive size (terzo means "third," and a terzigno is a third of the size of a standard barrel). There are plenty of uses for colatura. Make sure the salt is mixed evenly with the fish. Colatura is essentially the Italian equivalent of Southeast Asian fish sauce, and a relative of the ancient Roman (and current darling of the we-can-ferment-that chef world, thanks in large part to the Noma fermentation lab) sauce, garum. Making Garum – The Traditional Way I said we were going to do it in the original post on garum. Start with rinsing the bottle or jar with detergent. And that cost has to be passed down to the consumer. The liquid that seeps into the vase is liquamen. Then rinse well twice with boiling water, set the bottle or jar with the opening up on a clean towel to dry. Today’s closest equivalent to garum is probably fish sauce, a liquid mix of fermented fish and salt, which is now a staple in many Southeast Asian cuisines. You’ll find that it’s not bad at all! This is the method that I’ll call the Method Wunderlich (see below). According to Wunderlich the garum will be even better when you let it ferment longer (up to several months). Although garum enjoyed its greatest popularity in the Western Mediterranean and the Roman world, it was earlier used by the Greeks. Garum: Roman Fish Sauce. As with whiskey, the same ingredients can still produce vastly different-tasting results. Better to err on the excessive side than be too stingy. Garum is one of the basic ingredients in the cuisine of Roman antiquity.It is a fish sauce that was used to salt dishes. Red Boat is a great brand (no sugar) that is very close to the Roman style. If it is a used bottle or jar, check that there no lingering smells. We may earn a commission on purchases, as described in our affiliate policy. Use fatty fish, for example, sardines, and a well-sealed (pitched) container with a 26-35 quart capacity. Yes. The people of Southern Italy and Southern Asia may be far apart, geographically, but when it comes to fermented fish, they have a lot in common. The result, which must have been malodorous and horrid, was then strained and … They sold for a very high price. For each half liter of fish a whole liter of old wine is added. (Of course, these modified garum … Traditionally, garum is made by layering oily fish… According to Nettuno’s website: “Colatura is believed to be the modern descendant of garum, a Roman fish sauce that dates back at least as far as the third century BC. Fish sauce is a liquid condiment made from fish or krill that have been coated in salt and fermented for up to two years. Then strain the liquid several times through a kitchen cloth or paper towel until the liquid is clear. Now start straining. The sauce's name stems from a now unknown type of fish called "garos", used by the ancient Greeks, who were among the first to make an earlier type of garum, called garon. You can also add some dried mint. The original version was likely from the garus fish, hence the garum … Put fish, salt and herbs in a cooking pan, add enough water to cover the fish with one or two inches of liquid on top, in my pan that was 1.5 liter. The terzigno lids are then weighted down and the barrels are set aside for aging. Roman dishes were often flavoured with liquamen or garum. 500 gr sea salt or kosher salt The resulting liquid is very tasty when used in recipes, and will keep indefinitely in the refrigerator. Asian fish sauce often is made without herbs, resulting in a slightly more simple taste. I know it's available online, but before I take the plunge and buy it, I have to ask if and how it is different than Asian fish sauce, which is far cheaper and for all I know, may be pretty much the same thing, aside from the country of origin of the anchovies. Garum or liquamen. Cutting a turkey into parts is the easiest way to make sure that both the breast and the leg meat come out cooked evenly and to the correct temperature. Ancient Garum Recipe. The moisture will evaporate. While I haven't tried fresh Vietnamese anchovies, I'd bet that they don't taste exactly the same as anchovies from the Amalfi Coast. Coquinaria. I have acquired an electric fermenter and have started my own experiment with fermented fish sauce. The main difference from this garum with modern Asian fish sauces and authentic Roman garum is that it is not made with fermented fish but boiled fish. 1½ liter (2¾ pints) water. In the video below, he highlights garum: a fish sauce that was a beloved condiment in Ancient Rome. You need small, whole fish or just the innards, and 15 to 20% their weight in salt. When the solution cools down, the excess of salt will form crystals. Because the production of garum created such an unpleasant smell, its fermentation was relegated to the outskirts of cities. Colatura is essentially the Italian equivalent of Southeast Asian fish sauce, and a relative of the ancient Roman (and current darling of the we-can-ferment-that chef world, thanks in large part to the Noma fermentation lab) sauce, garum.. Like traditionally made, high quality Southeast Asian-style fish sauce, colatura is made with just two ingredients: anchovies and salt. In Asian cuisine, fish sauce still plays a leading role today. Post whatever you want, just keep it seriously about eats, seriously. Hvis du vil prøve det, kan du købe flaske nuoc mam eller nam pla (det thailandske navn), i de fleste butikker, der sælger asiatiske fødevareingredienser. This was poured into large earthenware jugs or pots with large amounts of salt. The fish should be kept … This means the yoghurtmaker will have to be switched on all that time. Garum was a fermented fish sauce used as a condiment in the cuisines of Phoenicia, ancient Greece, Rome, Carthage and later Byzantium. The ultimate homemade version of the classic green bean casserole, with fresh green beans, a rich mushroom sauce, and crispy fried shallots. Available on Amazon too of course. I made an incubator out of a medium size wooden box and a 25 watt light bulb but a food dryer (dehydrator) may work. Garum was used as a seasoning in small quantities, much like one might use a small amount of Worcestershire sauce. One can’t simply use kitchen salt in recipes, because instead of extracting moisture (which is what salt does), garum adds moisture to a dish. Take care to use a completely clean spoon for taking garum out of the jar, and when pouring it out of a bottle, wipe the neck with a clean cloth before putting the cap back on. The Thai call it fish sauce (nam pla); the ancient Romans called it garum. Mere eller mindre den samme sauce anvendes i andre sydøstasiatiske lande med forskellige regionale navne. It was made by the crushing and fermentation in brine of the intestines of fish such as tuna, eel, anchovies, and mackerel. Stir it through once a day. One can’t simply use kitchen salt in recipes, because instead of extracting moisture (which is what salt does), garum adds moisture to a dish. Throw it away if it turns opaque. During our conversation, Beatrice walked me through the production process for the colatura that they carry, made by a small company called Nettuno ("Neptune"). Fish (anchovy, mackerel, tuna) is mixed with salt in a ratio of 9:1, then left in a pot in the sun for several months, and stirred occasionally. The quick and easy garum is surprisingly barely fishy at all, and tastes quite good. Despite its widespread use and primary identification with Asian cuisine, fish sauce is believed to date back to the ancient Greeks who fished along the Black Sea; the Romans called it garum. Roman dishes were often flavoured with liquamen or garum. If the range hood in your kitchen is not strong enough, prepare the garum on an outdoor cooker. Subscribe to our newsletter to get the latest recipes and tips! For comparison, high quality Southeast Asian fish sauces are generally aged for around one year (there are specialty fish sauces that are aged even longer, such as Red Boat's Chef's Cuvee fish sauce, which is double-aged in bourbon barrels). The Ultimate Homemade Green Bean Casserole, 21 Dipping Sauces for Grilled Meats and Veggies. A workshop called 'Garum degli Ombricii' also produced locally in Pompeii. It is a fish sauce that was used to salt dishes. A little colatura goes a long way. Garum should be a fairly clear liquid. Use it to jazz up a batch of bagna càuda, or Caesar salad dressing. Some HTML is OK: link, strong, em. It's 1:15 in the morning, and I am chatting online with Chef Kevin Naderi, asking for some clarification about his fish sauce vinaigrette. Depending on the fish you use, and how long everything has boiled, you’ll end up with a pale yellow to deep amber coloured liquid. This is the fourth method described in the Geoponica. It is easy to prepare in modern kitchens, and only takes an hour or so. If it comes to flavour, Romans really loved the salty smelly fermented fish sauce garum or liquamen.Garum was the most popular seasoning in Roman Antiquity. During the Fall (2013) semester, five University of Mary Washington students enrolled in the Food in Global History class embarked upon a fascinating experiment to recreate the now extinct but once very popular Greco-Roman fish sauce called garum (and sometimes liquamen). Culinaire geschiedenis, onderzoek en praktijk. : 234 It is widely used as a staple seasoning in East and Southeast Asian cuisine. As I understand it, there was not one single, “official” recipe for garum; there were differences from region to region and probably from one maker to another. When they have been completely fermented they are scooped into a fine-meshed basket that is hanging in a vase. On this page a recipe to make your own fish sauce. Colatura is another umami bomb pantry item that you should definitely try at least once in your life. Making fish sauce also helped reduce food waste both in the food industry and for households. Coquinaria is not a commercial website, all information and recipes are free. McGee goes on to cite the origin of Asian fish sauces as garum, an ancient Roman sauce that “consists of the guts of fish and other parts that would otherwise be considered refuse, so the garum is really the liquor from putrefaction.”, according to the Roman historian, Pliny. 2. The fish will dissolve completely, only the fish bones will be left. You just need to use it a little more judiciously. Garum became a staple of Roman cuisine, and spread throughout the empire; remains of garum production sites were found in Spain, Portugal, and northern Africa. It may be that salt crystals are collecting at the bottom of the jar (see below for the explanation). Small fish are covered with salt, spread out in the sun and turned from time to time. These sauces are made with fermented fish, salt and water. When the garum returns to room temperature, the crystals will dissolve again. I use it often in my modern cooking. You want this: Look for it on Amazon. All products linked here have been independently selected by our editors. © Author Christianne Muusers, Filed Under: Technique, Roman, Italy, Condiment Tagged With: sardine, mint, salt Gepubliceerd op 24 April 2005Laatste wijziging 9 December 2019. Honest to Pete!! Italian archaeologist Claudio Giardino studies the early roots of garum, the Roman version of fish sauce. Because of the high content of salt, this sauce will keep for years. Fair warning: Once you do, it will be hard to live without it. garum vs fiskesauce. 4. I spent a while chatting about ingredients (as well as about our favorite Roman coffee bars, and New York pizza spots) with Gustiamo's founder and owner, Beatrice Ughi. You’ll need but a tea- or tablespoon full at the time. Use just a few drops in a dish and it imparts a lovely savory flavor. Both Thai cooks and ancient Roman chefs relied on a certain salty, powerfully fishy liquid dredged off fermenting anchovies. Splash a little over grilled vegetables, a steak, pork roast, or fish. Can be frozen, but must be whole) The fish sauce is not meant to be used as a sauce on its own. All I did was leaving out all the other herbs, using only oregano. Garum was a popular fish sauce condiment. I like to think of it as the fish sauce equivalent of real-deal aged balsamic vinegar; it's a specialty finishing product, not something that you toss into a steak tip marinade willy-nilly.