339 Science II Oak Leaf Blister: Oak leaf blister is a disease caused by the fungus Taphrina caerulescens. Much like the White Oak, the bark has shallow grooves, an ash-like look and peels off as the tree matures making it a striking specimen both in landscape and in the wild. … The Chinquapin Oak is still highly recommended for landscapes if you have enough room for the potential growth, 50 to 70 feet tall and spread 30 to 50 feet. The bark is red- or gray-brown and slightly furrowed into scaly plates. It’s considered a moderately slow grower, but your patience will definitely be rewarded with a beautiful specimen tree. Chinkapin oak is an extremely adaptable tree with an extensive range across the US. Cattle will eat the leaves. Chinkapin oak, a Central Texas native, is a medium-sized tree, reaching 40 to 50 feet tall, and just as wide, in most landscapes. The Tree is a deciduous tree, it will be up to 30 m (99 ft) high. In summer, excellent foliage is appreciated for its shade. As part of the group of white oaks, they bear very pale, white bark. Click on a place name to get a complete protected plant list for that location. The Chinkapin Oak is botanically called Quercus muehlenbergii. Strong tree, good for wildlife food and windbreaks. However, Dwarf Chinkapin Oak produces acorns when it is the size of shrub, while Chinkapin Oak … Beaver feed on the bark and twigs [ 23 ], and porcupines consume the bark [ 71 ]. It is commonly found on dry bluffs, ridge tops, and rocky, south facing slopes. The chinkapin oak is a large white oak tree that grows to between 45 and 110 ft. (20 – 33 m). Diseases that Can Affect Dwarf Chinkapin Oak The two species have contrasting kinds of bark: Chinkapin oak has a gray, flaky bark very similar to that of white oak (Q. alba) but with a more yellow-brown cast to it (hence the occasional name yellow oak for this species), while chestnut oak has dark, solid, deeply ridged bark. The range extends from Maine to Nebraska and south to North Carolina and Texas. The issue is even more confusing where the two species are growing together because they hybridize easily, resulting is stands of shrubby oaks with some of the characteristics of both species. Chinquapin Oak bark is tan to grey and offers an interesting texture in a landscape. The chinkapin oak is also commonly referred to as a yellow chestnut oak, rock oak or yellow oak. Although leaves of American beech (Fagus grandifolia are similar to Chinquapin oak, the former has smooth bark while the latter has shallowly fissured and flaky bark. The bark is an ashy light gray that breaks into narrow, thin flakes. The fruit, an acorn or nut, is borne singly or in pairs, matures in 1 year, and ripens in September or October. Yellow leaves in autumn are a lovely contrast to the light gray scaly bark. Chinkapin oak's sweet acorns are very palatable to a variety of animals, thus serving as an environmentally friendly food source for attracting urban wildlife. Chinkapin oak is notable for its shaggy bark, and its shiny, green leaves with shallow teeth that turn upwards at the tip and have a tiny projection (papilla) at each tip. Quercus muehlenbergii, commonly called Chinkapin (or Chinquapin) oak, is a medium sized deciduous oak of the white oak group that typically grows 40-60’ (less frequently to 80’) tall with an open globular crown.It is native to central and eastern North America where it is typically found on dry upland sites often in rocky, alkaline soils. They are often lighter green than the surrounding tissue and later turn brown. These oaks are relatively slow-growing as younger plants, but they become massive with age. Fall color varies from yellow to orangish-brown to brown. This plant has no children Legal Status. Features simple, oblong to oblong-lanceolate leaves that are dark yellowish green, coarsely toothed and 4–6½" in length. Mice, squirrels, voles, other small mammals, and white-tailed deer consume the acorns of chinquapin oak [ 13, 52, 65 ]. Its whitish bark and branch structure create a beautiful silhouette in winter. Ames, IA 50011, Iowa State University | PoliciesState & National Extension Partners. The bark is … Later on, the trees were used to fuel the steamships that ran from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. Blister-like patches appear on the leaves. Bark: Light gray, breaking into short, narrow flakes on the main trunk and limbs, deeply furrowed on older trunks. The bark is quite thin, breaking into plate-like scales similar to white oak. It thrives in a multitude of sites, from woodlands to inhospitable barrens. Seed Stratification: No stratification period is needed. The acorns are at the top of the food preference list for many wildlife species. The leaves are thick, firm, light yellow green above and lighter green to silvery white below. This tree grows at a slow to medium rate, with height increases of anywhere from less than 12" to 24" per year. The bark of the Chinquapin oaks may exfoliate. The Chinquapin Oak Tree is a medium sized tree in the white oak group, and the bark is gray-brown and scaly and quite distinct in the landscape. It does not have lobed leaves like most other oaks; its leaves are toothed like a chestnut. Commonly fount in the east and southwest Iowa. Early pioneers used its straight wood to make thousands of miles of fences in the states of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. Fruit, which is borne heavily every three to five years, is less of a problem than one might have with other oaks since the fruit is … Like all oaks, it does have a cluster of buds at the end of branches. The Chinquapin Oak is a deciduous tree (loses its foliage in the winter) with leaves that are dark-green and shiny on the topside and pale grey-green on the underside. The roots of some seedlings may be trimmed for ease of planting and packaging purposes. Unlike many trees the Ozark Chinquapin nut puts down a taproot in the fall of the year similar to what a white oak acorn does in the fall. … Habitat: Grows on rocky slopes and exposed bluffs. 1 review of Chinquapin Oak Park "Sometimes, a good idea actually takes root and does something good for a community. It prefers alkaline soils and should not be sited where the pH is less than 6.5. A medium to large size oak with 4"-6 1/2" glistening dark green leaves in summer turning yellow-orange to orangish-brown in fall. The flaky light brown to grayish mature bark is reminiscent of that of white oak (Quercus alba). Although native, chinkapin oak is sporadic within its range and seldom is a dominant species in a woodland. Adaptable to adverse soil conditions. Common names are from state and federal lists. Small chinkapin oaks can be confused with dwarf chinkapin oak (Quercus prinoides); dwarf chinkapin oak has smaller leaves with 3 to 7 pairs of veins and teeth and shorter petioles. Its glossy, coarsely-toothed leaves are yellow-green and small compared to most oaks. Bark and acorns are entirely different, with sawtooth oak bark being dark brown and furrowed, while chinkapin oak bark is almost white and flaky. The blister-like patches re… Varies with species. Form Height can reach 80' to 100' with a diameter of 36" (the average size of Minnesota trees is often smaller than this, however); open-grown trees have short trunks with many branches that form a wide, well-rounded crown; forest-grown trees are … Its common associates include white oak, bur oak, black oak, ironwood, redcedar, and the hickories. The acorn cup is 3/8 to 7/8 inches across, tight scaled, and oval shaped – it produces copious amounts of sweet-kernel acorn which is a valuable source of calories for wildlife. As this species matures, it becomes a magnificent specimen and a conversation piece. Chinkapin oak is a medium-sized, tall tree, often with large, low branches and a narrow, irregular crown. Chinkapin oak is native to the Midwest, where it is often found as a specimen planting or as a grouping of tree for parks and large areas. They were also used as railroad ties for the new railroads that crisscrossed the Midwest. Quercus muehlenbergii Engelm. The bark of the Chinquapin oaks may exfoliate. ... Chinkapin oak is named because of the resemblance of the leaves to the Allegheny chinquapin (Castanea pumila), a relative of American chestnut (C. dentata). ... Chinkapin oak is named because of the resemblance of the leaves to the Allegheny chinquapin (Castanea pumila), a relative of American chestnut (C. dentata). Chinkapin oak is normally a tree, but on very dry and/or on soils with low fertility, it will become shrubby. Although native, chinkapin oak is sporadic within its range and seldom is a dominant species in a woodland. No matter the gender, flowers will bloom from April to early June. Noteworthy Characteristics. – chinquapin oak Subordinate Taxa. These oaks are relatively slow-growing as younger plants, but they become massive with age. Chinkapin oak Chinkapin oak is native to the Midwest, where it is often found as a specimen planting or as a grouping of tree for parks and large areas. About half of the acorn is enclosed in a thin cup and is chestnut brown to nearly black. The flaky light brown to grayish mature bark is reminiscent of that of white oak (Quercus alba). Chinkapin Oak Fruit - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Chinkapin Oak Male Flowers - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Chinkapin Oak Twig - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University, Agriculture and Natural Resources Extension, Iowa State University Extension and Outreach, ISU Extension and Outreach Mature trees of Rock Chestnut Oak have deeply furrowed bark, which is very unlike the thin flaky bark of Chinkapin Oak. The bark is thin, light brown, and scaly. Most oak species are susceptible, but the red and black oak group are especially so. The Ozark Chinquapin has unique requirements for optimum growth. Chinkapin Oak are found on limestone outcrops and are tolerant of alkaline soils. Branches of Chinquapin Oak are light gray and range from flaky to platy, while its mature bark develops ridges that break into light gray blocks separated by dark gray, deep furrows. Its leaves are simple, alternate, 3 to 6 inches in length and 11/2 to 3 inches wide, with 8 to 13 pairs of veins and an equal number of large, sharply pointed teeth. Dwarf Chinkapin Oak - this is a much smaller species that often doesn't get much bigger than a shrub. The chinkapin oak grows in acidic, alkaline, loamy, moist, sandy, well-drained, wet and clay soils. Mature trees of Rock Chestnut Oak have deeply furrowed bark, which is very unlike the thin flaky bark of Chinkapin Oak. The leaves are simple, narrowly elliptical or lanceolate, yellow-green above and paler and finely hairy on the underside. All rights reserved. Young trees retain a pyramidal to oval habit with a pale gray, scaly ridged central trunk. Their trunks can grow to 3 feet in diameter. Later on, the trees were used to fuel the steamships that ran from Pittsburgh to New Orleans. The acorns of chinquapin oak are a high quality, dependable food source [ 30, 52 ]. The branches and chestnut-like leaves form a round crown for the perfect shade tree. Chinkapin Oak Leaves - Photo by Paul Wray, Iowa State University. The chinkapin oak grows to a height of 40–50' and a spread of 50–60' at maturity. The wood of chinkapin oak is hard, heavy, strong, durable and shock resistant. The Arbor Day Foundation is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit conservation and education organization. Width: 40 to 70 feet. Site Requirements: Best growth in moist, well-drained soils. The chinkapin oak can be expected to grow in Hardiness Zones 4–7. Minor infections cause little harm, but midsummer defoliation can occur when infections are severe. Chinkapin oak's sweet acorns are very palatable to a variety of animals, thus serving as an environmentally friendly food source for attracting urban wildlife. Chinkapin oaks perform well in alkaline soils. Plant groupings in large spaces or parks. These are bare root seedlings. Unlike most white oaks, it is tolerant of alkaline soil and needs a pH >7. Holes in the bark, which the adult insects enter and exit the tree from, are primarily located on the lower 10 feet of the trunk, though they may also be on large branches. Click on the images help you identify an Chinkapin oak. A worthy specimen for larger lawns, estates, or parks. It is native over all of Iowa except for the northwest one-quarter of the state. Chinkapin oak is a member of the white oak group with chestnut-type leaves. Height: Varies with species. A million members, donors, and partners support our programs to make our world greener and healthier. Facts About Chinkapin Trees Chinkapins are native to this country, growing naturally in the wild from New England to the Mexican border. It tolerates wet conditions and some drought but does best in well-drained areas that do not experience severe drought. Introduction: Chinkapin oak is a member of the white oak group with chestnut-type leaves. Does best in well-drained soil and adapts to many different soil types. Capable of growing upwards of 100 feet. View Map. They are somewhat drought tolerant once established. Chinkapin oak (Quercus muehlenbergii) is a native oak which is often not recognized as an oak when first encountered. Bark: Light gray, breaking into short, narrow flakes on the main trunk and limbs, deeply furrowed on older trunks. It is native over all of Iowa except for the northwest one-quarter of the state. Fruit, which is borne heavily every three to five years, is less of a problem than one might have with other oaks since the fruit is … The acorns are 1/2 to 3/4 inch long, without a stalk; the caps are bowl shaped covering 1/3 to 1/2 of the acorn. Because of this seed collected in the fall of the year … Unlike most white oaks, chinkapin oak is tolerant of alkaline soil. The staminate flowers are borne in catkins that develop from the leaf axils of the previous year, and the pistillate flowers develop from the axils of the current year's leaves. The leaves are and the flowers are . There is one in the Fort Worth Botanic Garden that is at least 70 feet tall and 60 years old. Yields 1" round acorns that mature in the first year. Grow in full sun. Wildlife Habitat Programs and Consultation, Alternate, simple, lobed; lobes with rounded tips. Twigs are greenish tinged with red or purplish red, turning orange brown to gray brown later in the year. This oak tree has branches that emerge from the trunk reasonably close to the ground. Chinkapin oak acorns are the preferred food for wild turkeys, grouse, white-tailed deer, black bears, chipmunks, squirrels and hogs. Chinkapin oak is a medium sized tree (1 to 2 feet in diameter and 40 to 70 feet tall). Early pioneers used its straight wood to make thousands of miles of fences in the states of Ohio, Kentucky and Indiana. It is an attractive tree that does best in moist to dry well-drained soil but adapts to different soil types. Leaves: Alternate, simple, lobed; lobes with rounded tips, Seed Dispersal Dates: September - October. Faunal Associations: The Obscure Scale (Melanaspis obscura) has been found on the bark of Dwarf Chinkapin Oak (Quercus prinoides), while larvae of the Round Bullet Gall Wasp (Disholcaspis quercusglobulus) form galls on the branches of this oak and larvae of other gall wasps (Cynipidae) form galls on its buds (ScaleNet, 2014; Bassett, 1881).). Threatened and Endangered Information: This plant is listed by the U.S. federal government or a state. Photo courtesy of Texas Tree Trails. Dwarf Chinkapin Oak Bark - Photo by Chris Evans, River to River CWMA, Bugwood.org . Copyright © 2020 Iowa State University of Science and Technology. Use it as a unique specimen planting or a mast tree for wildlife. Full sun is the ideal condition for this tree, meaning it should get at least six hours of direct, unfiltered sunlight each day.