Modulus of Rupture: 18,200 lb f /in 2 (125.5 MPa) Elastic Modulus: 2,966,000 lb f /in 2 (20.46 GPa) Crushing Strength: 9,940 lb f /in 2 (68.6 MPa) Shrinkage: Radial: 6.2%, Tangential: 8.0%, Volumetric: 11.6%, T/R Ratio: 1.3. It’s more like 7 or 8. My recommendation is to contact a commercial seed merchant. I work at a lumberyard and I have gotten varying answers like ironwood, wenge, jatoba, cocobola, etc. What is black ironwood's density? I have two elephants from South Africa – they do not float. Cellulose, the stuff Ma Nature makes her wood with, is heavier than water. I believe a number of Australian desert woods would challenge many, if not most, dense woods described here, in density (many over 1200 kg/ m3). Your list is commendable, however, inaccurate. It ‘s not a commercial wood but occassionally available. It’s easy to see what makes Snakewood so unique–its patterns and markings resemble the skin of a snake. Copyright © 2008-2020 Eric Meier | All Rights Reserved, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfXW9Tw-3O0, https://www.wood-database.com/wood-trading/, https://www.agforests.com.au/uploads/Utilisation%20of%20Western%20Queensland%20Hardwoods%20as%20Speciality%20Timbers.pdf, https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/04-132.pdf, https://www.agrifutures.com.au/wp-content/uploads/publications/04-132.pdf. *The ‘Specific Gravity’ of water is the reference point and is 1 (1000kg/m³). Ironwood is deep chocolate-brown, almost black, mottled with yellowish-red. Thank you. I don’t know about other regions, but many Australian trees also have seeds that require special treatment to induce germination, having evolved so that the seeds only germinate after a bushfire has eliminated competing plants such as grasses. Anybody know what the least expensive most readily available heaviest wood for the US would be? Ironwood seeds can be eaten and the wood is popular in the manufacture of items such as knife handles and game boards due to its smoothness, density, coloring, and grain. It’s currently listed as no. I need to find a wood for my wool spindle, specific to a Dealgan spindle.Next step to find a lathe and an operator-man preferably. VAT • Thickness available: … We have the largest selection of rare hardwoods from around the world. being the original “ebony.”. Pieces are very seldom seen for sale, as this tree is too small to produce commercially viable lumber. It is not as heavy as the South American timber mentioned, but should be less expensive and very readily available. I’m no master woodworker and this gave me a lot of valuable info for my projects. EXAMPLE 3 Black ironwood has a density of 67.24 lb/ft 3. I would contact the ones that list the trees but show that they are out of stock, and ask them if they expect more stock in the future. When given this tree sign, one can be referred to as having a steady and sturdy enough foundation for further growth and development, both in themselves as well as enabling the same in others. I have learn a lot myself by a fluke just as I was looking for a hard woods in my area of southern Ontario, Canada. Water weighs 62.3 pounds per cubic foot at room temperature (70 degrees F), so all the woods listed above will readily sink in water. Ironwood is a high-density timber. Try it, pick up a gallon jug of water and say to yourself, “this gallon jug looks like it’s approximately a cubic foot and weighs about 7 or 8 pounds”. Of course, I did not ask for spelling and wonder if there is a… Read more ». Other Names Desert ironwood, Arizona ironwood, palo de hierro, tesota, palo de fierro, palofierro, Sonora ironwood. By 1984, the density of black ash on previously grazed sites was 93.9 stems/ha. 1 mL of water at 4 degrees Celsius or 39.4 degrees F, it’s most dense temperature, is exactly 1.0 gram. need solution though. thanks, How to grow a forest of your own by getting hold of theses seeds of wood exotics, any body can guide, through some collectors not commercial links of sites…please. Low-density wood (core) - soft/medium: 200-400kg/m³ ... Black Ironwood - {Olea laurifolia} Average Specific Gravity 1.08 Brazil Ironwood - Caesalpinia ferrea} Average Specific Gravity 1.18 Brazilwood - {Caesalpinia echinata} Average Specific Gravity 1.22 Burma Ironwood - {Xylia xylocarpa} Average Specific Gravity 1.26 Dont have the name of it just now. I don’t have any samples of this wood. A Qld Forestry Publication lists many Australian species with air dry densities over 1200 kg /m3. I have amassed over 500 wood species on a single poster, arranged into eight major geographic regions, with each wood sorted and ranked according to its Janka hardness. Black ironwood has a density of 67.24 lb/ft 3. I am passing it on to my Grandson who has everything he wants except this piece. We have chosen to use this rich, walnut colored exotic wood in the riser of the PL V “Ironwood” bow. Any input or feedback, even an offer, would be very helpful. According to Druidry.org, Ironwood may be considered a birth tree for the dates of Jun 4-13 / Dec 2-11 and is called a tree of discipline, order, and admiration. The wood is one of the heaviest in the world. That’s when you’ll find out where the seeds come from and how. Historical evidence points to this wood (rather than Diospyros spp.) Lysiphyllum hookerii (Red bauhinia) 1225 Lysiphyllum carronii (White bauhinia) 1390 Eucalyptus orgadophylla (Mountain coolibah) 1230 Diospyros humilis (Queensland ebony) 1250 Acacia cambagei (Gidyea) 1345 Eucalyptus whitei (White’s ironbark) 1235 Eucalyptus shirleyi (Shirley’s ironbark) 1235 Erythropleum chlorostachys (Cooktown ironwood) 1220 Archidendropsis basaltica (Dead finish) 1200 Acacia aneura (Mulga) 1200 Acacia peuce (Waddywood) 1425 Acacia rhodoxylon (Rosewood) 1280 Acacia omalophylla (Yarran) 1235 Bear in mind that these are… Read more ». It is considered one of the most highly-regarded woods for knife-making due to its unparalleled density, stability, unique coloring and natural luster. It is originallly supplied to me by the late Arthur Green of Louisiana. It’s mostly used for building structural timbers and used to be used for railway ties because of its strength and resistance to decay and insect attack. Thanks a million! It has a very dark purple heartwood. Not sure either of the above is what you’re describing though. We were told it was carved from a tree root. Due to its considerable hardness and density, processing the wood requires very sharp tools. Any chance you might have any samples for sale or trade? Oak is another contender. We have over 250 species of woods and more than 9,000 hand-curated selections offering hobbiests, craftworkers and designers countless options to match any project or style. This small South American tree could be considered a super-mesquite. In some parts of the world, this wood has achieved an almost legendary status. This was forty years ago in Nepal, of all places, but if you’re still looking, try the Brooklyn Botanical Gardens’ Economic Botany Section for advice and possible seeds or cuttings. (I even deal specifically with Olea capensis and the Guinness world record claim.) NAME: IRONWOOD SCIENTIFIC NAME: EUCALYPTUS SIDEROXYLON E. TRICARPA • Price per m³ excl. Identifying and Using Hundreds of Woods Worldwide, POSTER: Worldwide Woods: Ranked by Hardness. Working link: https://www.agrifutures.com.au/wp-content/uploads/publications/04-132.pdf, Hey Eric, I like the countdown to the heaviest wood. Note *6 Ironwood or Hop Hornbeam: Not a large tree, I usually don't bother to split it. The Queensland Department of Forestry compiled a list of commercial timbers in a technical bulletin in 1989. Probably depends on the application, the size and shape of the piece you want, and possibly other aspects. Ecological Restoration Notes: An important canopy or subcanopy tree in hammocks. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=IfXW9Tw-3O0. Do you have any pictures of the wood, especially of the endgrain? The variation in the Bahamas (Protected) but can be taken as reclaimed wood is a nice choice. Aspiring wood nerds be advised: your syllabus may be calling for Worldwide Woods as part of your next assignment! In the tropical jungles of South America grows a tree that has earned the common name of “Ironwood”. 1996). If I was to take some pictures of wood I cannot identify, would someone be able to definitively name it? Maybe, maybe not; but we need finality, we need separation, we need a champion. Please let me know. It resists disease, termites and will outlast salt spray better than iron. Density listings are for woods at a dried weight of 12% moisture content. Sorry Natalie that was a joke in very poor taste. This is easiest done using the metric system, because fresh water has a density of 1,000kg/m3. Kingwood supposedly got its name from several French kings (Louis XIV and Louis XV) that preferred the wood in the use of fine furniture. Widely accepted as the heaviest wood in the world–this wood has been listed as an endangered species and is listed in CITES. If the professionals can’t get them, you are going to have problems finding them. I’m thinking something like Jatoba or Cumaru might fit the bill, depending on your requirements. They don’t all use the same indicators of fire, so knowledge of each species is required. I’ve never heard of any softwood, when fully dry to 12% moisture content, that would sink in water. Section 3 covers the mechanical properties, and describes the methodology of the sampling and testing. (adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push({}); There’s just something within human nature that loves to see things ordered and ranked: we want a champion. I’m curious to know where it will rank. A lot will depend on the quality of the pictures and how well the wood (especially the endgrain) has been prepared to seen the details. Shorea robusta or “Sal” might possibly be what you’re thinking of. Therefore a gallon of water at standard temperature is 3785.41 grams divided by 453.59 grams per pound which is 8.345 pounds per gallon. Here’s my trade list: https://www.wood-database.com/wood-trading/, Dear Sir, I see you message only now. Ironwood reached it's highest population of 15,739 in 1920. Are Rosewoods (and Bubinga) really banned by CITES? Although It has a name that would make us think that the wood contains iron but it only resembles high density just like iron. 1 2 3. It’s extremely heavy with light and dark wood, three legs and we loved it enough to have it shipped to PA. Therefore, 62 lb sounds entirely plausible as the weight of a… Read more ». It is, indeed, as tough as iron! If you want to maintain or even increase the luster in the wood, treat it with log oil, furniture oil, bench oil or other type of wood oil containing linseed oil. Walnut, Domestic Black 1010 Camaru (Brazilian Teak) 3540 Walnut, Mayan/Aztec 1400 Chestnut, Brazilian 3540 Walnut, Patagonian 2800 Lapacho 3670 Walnut, Red 2450 Walnut, Brazilian 3680 Wenge 1630 Ironwood, Green 3680 White Oak, North American 1360 Ebony, Brazilian 3692 Yellow Pine, Long Leaf 870 Olivewood, Brazilian 3700 Here is an interesting publication by the same author I highly recommend checking out my video explaining why this is. Availability: Widely cultivated. My question to you Eric,… Read more », I have been searching for an answer for my beautiful Hardwood coffee table. Very hard and heavy but not durable to weather. Petrified wood is wood fibers that are replaced with minerals. Redwood of course has a low dry specific gravity. I have seen Acacia peuce (waddywood) from central Australia listed as between 1.35 and 1.4 in density from various credible sources over recent years and from my own past measurements. It is known for its amazing strength, density and hardness (two to three times harder than oak). Leadwood is seldom seen for sale, and is reported to be protected in South Africa–a very elusive timber. [fusion_builder_container hundred_percent=”yes” overflow=”visible”][fusion_builder_row][fusion_builder_column type=”1_1″ background_position=”left top” background_color=”” border_size=”” border_color=”” border_style=”solid” spacing=”yes” background_image=”” background_repeat=”no-repeat” padding=”” margin_top=”0px” margin_bottom=”0px” class=”” id=”” animation_type=”” animation_speed=”0.3″ animation_direction=”left” hide_on_mobile=”no” center_content=”no” min_height=”none”] The Janka scale is used to determine the relative hardness of particular domestic or exotic wood species. I have a large inventory of wood samples for sale and for trade. Unlike other types of wood, ironwood does not float because of its high density. Good quality axe handles in USA are usually hickory, which is native to USA. “Imli” or Tamarind Wood is probably too dark to be what you’re thinking of – it’s very strong and shock resistant and is used for axe and other tool handles, or fine turning. Spanning over 7 miles, Ironwood has a population density of 746 people per square mile. Now I need to learm more of a core gravity od a wood that will produce steady whorl. (1 lb = 454 g; 1 ft = 30.5 cm). So you want seeds but don’t want to pay for them? Tim Inman: So I checked on the Internet and discovered there are about two or three dozen woods that are commonly called “ironwood.” Lignum vitae is among them. Related to mesquite, it’s very dark, very dense, and very hard; a good substitute for ebony. Ironwood is a common name for many woods or plants that have a reputation for hardness, or specifically a wood density that is heavier than water (approximately 1000 kg/m3, or 62 pounds per cubic foot), although usage of the name ironwood in English may or may not indicate a tree that yields such heavy wood. In case anyone was reading this and trying to get the pdf. We have chosen to use this rich, walnut colored exotic wood in the handle of the SA V “Ironwood” bow. Wood Charts: Density, Hardness, Stiffness and Strength Here you'll find charts that break down the wood types by density, hardness, stiffness and strength. Some of the densest Australian woods have been the heartwoods of Alectryon oleifolius and Acacia peuce. Too small to be a viable timber tree, this wood’s colorful grain and high density are restricted to small specialty projects. General Landscape Uses: An accent or specimen tree in residential and commercial landscapes, but slow growing and sometimes difficult to establish. I wood recommend that to you if its still available. @media(min-width: 701px) { .test { display: none !Important; } } It checks significantly, but can be used in woodwork in small pieces. As a IWCS wood (reference specimen) supplier I send many wood reference specimens around the world, to collectors and universities, for study. FYI: I receive a commission on sales generated through links to Amazon, eBay, etc. Otherwise, when it comes to domestic lumbers, it’s hard to beat the cost/hardness ratio of Beech. Black walnut burl (i think) Price : CALL. It may simply be a seasonal product. https://www.agforests.com.au/uploads/Utilisation%20of%20Western%20Queensland%20Hardwoods%20as%20Speciality%20Timbers.pdf, Here is a working link to the document that Eugene describes: https://rirdc.infoservices.com.au/downloads/04-132.pdf. Black Ironwood Krugiodendron ferreum. It is densier than the water but it will sink. One gallon of water weighs 8.3453 pounds. It’s a little hard to work with but once you have a flat surface, you can then sand the surface to a very high polish that never needs waxing. i cannot think of the name anyone got any sugestions would be gratefull for any ideas. Desert ironwood, which grows in the southwestern United States, has a somewhat peculiar quality – it is heavier than water, its density is 1.2 kg/dm³ which means it will sink. Lignum Vitey if you can afford it/find it. Maybe later. It typically wouldn’t be used as a gift box because it was too heavy. One cubic foot of water contains 7.48052 gallons. Wiki User Answered . It was made near Acapulco, Mexico in the “60’s. It's great for holding fires overnight. this wood is very heavy but light in culour similar to light oak but much heavier and stronger it grows in indiia and similare countries expensive. The toughness of black ironwood was comparable to steel, but its density surpassed it. Honestly it wasn’t a joke- hence redwood sinkers. These dense, hard woods are usually very slow growing, and harvested trees are often hundreds of years old. I was actually cruising Google to find the properties of German Esche that turned out to be an Ash Tree, and stumbled onto this article. Keep in mind that wood density can vary by an average of plus or minus 10% between samples (called the coefficient of variation), so it’s entirely possible that a sample of the tenth-ranked wood on this list could easily weigh more than a sample of the first ranked wood on this list. Ironwood is a common name for many woods or plants that have a reputation for hardness, or specifically a wood density that is heavier than water (approximately 1000 kg/m , or 62 pounds per cubic foot), although usage of the name ironwood in English may or may not indicate a tree that yields such heavy wood. ), which is commonly known as ironwood, desert ironwood, or palo fierro in Spanish. Honorable mentions: Camelthorn (74.0 lbs/ft3),  Zapote (73.0 lbs/ft3), Brown Ebony (72.3 lbs/ft3), Macassar Ebony (71.8 lbs/ft3), Katalox (71.6 lbs/ft3), Ipe (68.7 lbs/ft3). Table 3.1 on Page 23 (Page 43/242 in the pdf) shows average air dry (which it defines as 12% moisture content, tested in accordance with AS/NZS 1080.1 (1997)) densities, and lists that of Gidgee (Acacia cambagei) as 1,283 kg/m^3. The only explanation that I can think of would be that the wood is not dry yet. (1 lb = 454 g; 1 ft = 30.5 cm). One might watch a basketball game, where the two teams battle back and forth in lock-step into double overtime, only to have the winning team go ahead by a single basket at the buzzer. Local, African and Imported Timbers. A gallon of water is 3.786 liters or 3785.41 milliliters to me more exact. In the US, it’s referred to as “African Blackwood.”, (This is a monthly update, and your email will be kept private.). Germany has some real crappy firewood, but Esche and Buche (Beech) seems to be the only real contenders burning longer and not giving you a headache. Mr Meier, I’m not a wood boffin, but just loved your article here…so anytime you find yourself near Pilanesberg National Park in South Africa, you have a bed – save travelinafrica@gmail.com somewhere:) Answer. what about this piece of wood only found in the Solomon islands and may other parts of the world but it considered to be the hardest wood on earth”Xanthostemon melanoxylon”- species. I don’t have any info on the wood from these trees. If you had a sample whose volume was 47.3 ml, how many grams would it weigh? Thank you all for a load of valuable information on wood. I have been searching over net since 5 months for: Bobinga, Peltogyne, Bocote, Zircote, Ebony, Dalbergia Nigra, Retusa and even the big seed companies like chiternseeds or b n t do not have them, so I thought some collector may help out, iam not looking for them for free and if any of them are in Zone 9-11 its fine for me. As well as its hardness/density, its other mechanical properties (flexibility and vibration damping) are particularly compatible with use for percussion (striking) tool handles. When sanded and polished, Ironwood begins to resemble the metal after which it was named. This is, generally speaking, false. It says elsewhere that Black Ironwood (African Ironwood) is called Olea capensis and, according to the Guinness Book of Records, is the heaviest wood, with a specific gravity of 1.49 (whatever that means). Asked by Wiki User. A seed merchant could advise what preparation is required to maximise the likelihood of successful cultivation of each species they sell. SG of Black Ironwood … With this intrinsic urge in mind, I’ve compiled a top ten list of the heaviest woods in the world. The cost of the seeds would be quite low compared to the freight charges, particularly if you get them from several different suppliers. It is very heavy, provides the most beautiful grain you will ever see. In addition, the size and foliar density of an ironwood are strong factors influencing their relative value as nurses. Completely incorrect. Expect the top to last forever… Read more ». Or are you looking for wood samples? Did this necessarily determine who the better team truly was? In nearby ungrazed oak-hickory forests, black ash density was 89.0 stems/ha in 1931, 19.8 stems/ha in 1951, and 19.8 stems/ha in 1984. Top Answer. If it takes 50 plus years: may be something which you may be remembered after…! This is easiest done using the metric system, because fresh water has a density of 1,000kg/m3, SG of Black Ironwood = 1,300/1,000 = SG of 1.3. Black ash did not appear on grazed sites in the 20th postgrazing year but was found in the 53rd postgrazing year. Its name comes from the heavy, dense heart wood the tree produces. Thank you again, awesome article ! approximately 0.3 m, which gives a metric volume of approximately 0.027 cubic metres (0.3 x 0.3 x 0.3). Like the unrelated Desert Ironwood, Black Ironwood is an excellent choice for small turning projects. I checked specific gravity, comes out to about 1.19, (2.1 x 1.21 x 5.58 inches and 0.612 lbs)sinks fast in bucket of water! Ipe doesn’t crack the top ten list, but (for now) you can see it at the tail end of the honorable mentions at the end of the article. This list and site is exactly what I needed. But nonetheless, we want someone to take home the gold medal—we need a champion crowned—so here are the top ten heaviest woods in the world: Sometimes called Argentine Lignum Vitae, this wood is a gem: inexpensive, great olive-green color, beautiful feathery grain pattern, and it takes a great natural polish on the lathe. Some require heat, some require a chemical that can be applied via “smoke water”, and some require the seed to be scarified. The median rental costs in recent years comes to $506 per month, and the median house value is $49,500. A cubic foot is a cube with side lengths of one foot, i.e. The weight of one cubic foot of water is 7.48052 gallons times 8.3453 pounds, which equals62.42718356 pounds of water per cubic foot. The density of water is in the order of 1,000 kg/m^3, so a cubic foot of water weighs approximately 27 kg or 59.4 lbs using these rough approximations and conversions. Limited supply and high demand make this one of the most expensive woods on earth! Black Ironwood Lumber. This wood is a hobbyist favorite. Unfortunately you are mistaken Murray. Most will sell small quantities, and you can expect the seeds to be viable. The poster, Worldwide Woods, Ranked by Hardness, should be required reading for anyone enrolled in the school of wood nerdery. If the former, I once had a friend who had good luck in similar circumstances with approaching a botanical garden. As for your forest, you will need a suitable climate and soil, and then a LOT of time. Some of these species weigh, on average, only a few tenths of a pound more per cubic foot than their nearest rivals: certainly no conclusive ranking should be inferred from the list. The population density in Ironwood is 335% higher than Michigan; The median age in Ironwood is 18% higher than Michigan; In Ironwood 96.01% of the population is White; In Ironwood 2.26% of the population is Black; In Ironwood 0.45% of the population is Asian I don’t know much about your antiquated jugs and gallons but I do know that a foot is approximately 0.3 metres, and a kilogram is approximately 2.2 pounds. Hi, I was looking for info on Italian stone pine and couldn’t find it, maybe goes under a different name? https://www.wood-database.com/bocote/ I’m not familiar with vernacular names used in Mexico, so that’s just an educated guess. Your 8 pounds per gallon is off by 4.3%, not an insignificant amount. They used to make ball bearings with it back in the horse and buggy days when steel/iron was not available. Old phrase… a pint is a pound the world around. The rounded shape and average height of 15 feet, although it can grow to 30 feet, make this a great specimen tree. It was a black box crafted out of resilient black ironwood. Let it dry for a couple years. Each wood species is listed in alphabetical order on each chart with its corresponding related number next to each species. From the Spanish “quebrar hacha,” which literally means “axe breaker.” Aptly named, wood in the Schinopsis genus is among the heaviest and hardest in the world. In my > 5500 species wood collection I have a wood sample of Acacia peuce with a volume weight of 1,43. The small oval leaves are shiny and the trunk is … 2. I see different weights given to a gallon of water. When you refer to “Ebony” do you mean Indian ebony, Diospyros melanoxylon? [/fusion_builder_column][/fusion_builder_row][/fusion_builder_container]. Black ironwood has a density of 67.24 lb/ft 3. While pint = pound may once have been part of the imperial system. It is known for its amazing strength, density and hardness (two to three times harder than oak). Its coloring can vary from an orangish-yellow to darker red or brown with dark violet to black streaking. The wood is full of natural oils. The ENTIRE imperial system is now based upon values of the metric system. Color/Appearance: Black Ironwood’s heartwood can be a range of reds, oranges, violets, and browns. Can anyone identify this hardwood , these African or Egyptian head sculpture hardwood carvings weigh 5 pounds each and stand 49 centimetres(19 inches) in height. Fluorescence: A Secret Weapon in Wood Identification, Bow Woods (from a mathematical perspective), Brazilian Rosewood, East Indian, and Other Rosewoods, Genuine Lignum Vitae and Argentine Lignum Vitae, BOOK: WOOD! You’d probably want to look at flooring species for the combination of cheap and heavy. There are others. Ironwood makes good tool handles, or implements that require taking great strain. Therefor merely divide the density of the wood by the density of fresh water. In the tropical jungles of South America grows a tree that has earned the common name of “Ironwood”. here in the middle east we know it’s a wood that doesn’t float and don’t soak water. The leaves of these trees, locally called “tendu,” are… Read more », Australia is home to many dense hardwoods. Pint = pound is actually a definition in the English system, and does not need or allow for recalculation. 4470 Black Ironwood Drive Fairfax, VA Find on map >> Owner: KAMRAN LUTFI Land value: $145,000 (it was $125,000 in 2010) Building value: $386,300 (it was $326,050 in 2010) Total value for property: $531,300 (it was $451,050 in 2010) Assessments for tax year: 2014 Land area: 2,979 square feet Living area: 2,154 square feet Therefor merely divide the density of the wood by the density of fresh water. The Janka test measures the amount of force required to embed a 0.444" steel ball into the wood to half of its diameter. Another exceptionally hard African wood, the name says it all. Seem very dense heavy wood . The fact that Ironwood is so hard is the only reason why we call it ironwood. 2013-08-22 09:16:15 2013-08-22 09:16:15. You might consider indicating specific gravity of those woods in your “heaviest woods” category because whether they float or not is an interesting topic of converstion. This burl is very dark and has been coated with clear varnish, the wood grain and unusual form of the burl will make an outstanding finished piece. .test { width: 320px; height: 100px; margin:10px 0px; } If you had a sample whose volume was 47.3 ml, how many grams would it weigh? list of plants with the same or similar names, Some of the species with their common name, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ironwood&oldid=987316682, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page is an index of articles on plant species (or higher taxonomic groups) with the same, This page was last edited on 6 November 2020, at 07:12.